HomeOne Level Up Last updated: 02.02.2021

Royal Navy
Koninklijke Marine (KM)



Part I: Organisation 1 | Part II: List of Ships | Part III: Aircraft | Land Based Logistic Support | Wartime Organisation
BDZ / MARSTAFKMARNSCZMNEDCZMNA  
Unit Location Peace Strength War Strength
Commander in Chief of the Navy /
Naval Staff [a]
Den Haag ?
?
   
Naval Command Netherlands Den Helder ?
?
Marine Corps [b] Rotterdam 254/638/2058 (2950)
± 555/754/8341 (9650)
Naval Command Netherlands Antilles [c] Willemstad (NA) ?
?
   
Royal Navy Peace Strength: 2628/6893/7278 (16799) [d]
Royal Navy War Strength: ± 4054/8085/18150 (30289) [e]

Notes


a. The Commander-in-Chief of the Navy (Bevelhebber der Zeestrijdkrachten, BDZ) was also Chief of Staff of the Navy (Chief of the Naval Staff) (Chef Marinestaf, CMS). The Naval Staff was part of the Ministry of Defence; unlike the Army Staff it did not have a non-ministerial part. As such it should, strictly speaking, not be shown here as part of the military organisation. The Naval Staff was responsible for policies concerning (the preparation for) combat operations and for the operational effectiveness of the units and installations of the Royal Navy. It was made up of fifteen divisions, of which the (operationally) most important ones were grouped under a Subchief Operations (Souschef Operatiën) and a Subchief Plans (Souschef Plannen). 'Operations' comprised five divisions: Intelligence and Security; Operations; Signals; Logistics and War Preparation; Technics, Weapon Engineering and Safety. 'Plans' also comprised five divisions: Organisation; Plans; Aviation; Tactics and Armament Selection; NATO and WEU Affairs. Sub 'Operations' the Head of the Intelligence and Security Division (Afdeling Inlichtingen en Veiligheid) was also Head of the Naval Intelligence Service (Marineinlichtingendienst, MARID).2    
b. Peacetime personnel strength as given is per 31 December 1985. The 254 officers include 28 officer cadets and 10 reserve officer cadets (adelborsten).3 For the approximate wartime strength the 1981 strengths of the mobilisable reserve have been added: 301/1022/5377 (6700). See Marine Corps, Mobilisable Reserve.
c. Naval Command Netherlands Antilles (CZMNA) was redesignated Naval Command Caribbean (CZMCARIB) on 1 January 1986, on which date Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles and became a separate country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.4
d. Peace strength per 31 December 1985. The 2628 officers include 270 officer cadets and 116 reserve officer cadets.2 Civilian personnel is not included. In 1987 the Royal Navy had 6,567 civilian personnel.5
e. For the approximate war strength, the peace strength has been augmented with the mobilisable reserve of the Marine Corps (see note b), and with reservists of the Fleet and the Naval Aviation Service (Marineluchtvaartdienst, MLD) as counted in approved drafts of mobilisation regulations from 1980-1983: 1125/170/5495 (6790). Together this adds 13,490 personnel. However, it is not certain that this number comprises the total number of Royal Navy reservists. In contemporary publications a total number of 15,000 to 20,000 reservists is mentioned, of which 7,000 to 7,500 on standby readiness (probably recallable within twenty-four hours). It may well be that these larger numbers include 'superfluous' reservists not (yet) assigned to units.6



Part I: Organisation | Part II: List of Ships 7 | Part III: Aircraft | Land Based Logistic Support | Wartime Organisation

Submarines | Frigates | Fast Combat Support Ships | Mine Countermeasures Vessels | Large Patrol Craft | Landing Craft | Training Ships | Accommodation Ships | Survey Ships | Tugboats | Torpedo Tenders | Diving Tenders | Auxiliary Vessels | Light Craft


Submarines 8
Zwaardvis Class [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
S 806
Zwaardvis 67 1966 1972 Rotterdamse Droogdokmaatschappij
S 807 Tijgerhaai 67 1966 1972 Rotterdamse Droogdokmaatschappij
   
Potvis Class [b]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
S 804
Potvis 67 1962 1965 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
S 805 Tonijn 67 1962 1966 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
   
Dolfijn Class [c]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
S 808
Dolfijn [d] – (67) 1954 1960 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
S 809 Zeehond 67 1954 1961 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
   
Walrus Class [e]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
S 802
Walrus 49 1979 1992 Rotterdamse Droogdokmaatschappij
S 803 Zeeleeuw 49 1981 1990 Rotterdamse Droogdokmaatschappij

Note
   
a. Zwaardvis class: diesel-electric ocean-going patrol-attack submarine. Armament: six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes (bow), Mk 37 series torpedoes. Speed: 20 knots submerged, 13 knots surfaced.9
b. Potvis class: diesel-electric ocean-going patrol-attack submarine. Triple hull (three-cylinder) design. Armament: eight 53.3 cm torpedo tubes (four bow, four stern), Mk 37 series torpedoes. Speed: 17 knots submerged, 14.5 knots surfaced.
c. Dolfijn class: diesel-electric ocean-going patrol-attack submarine. Triple hull (three-cylinder) design. After midlife modernisation in the late 1960s to early 1970s almost identical to Potvis-class. Armament: eight 53.3 cm torpedo tubes (four bow, four stern), Mk 37 series torpedoes. Speed: 17 knots submerged, 14.5 knots surfaced. To be replaced by the first two boats of the Walrus-class.10
d. Decommissioned on 29 April 1982, placed in reserve to be used for training purposes, deleted from the reserve on 1 February 1985 and sold to be scrapped on 22 July 1985.11
e. Walrus class: diesel-electric ocean-going patrol-attack submarine initially designed as improved Zwaardvis class to replace the Potvis and Dolfijn class boats. The long and overlapping developement and building processes, plagued by setbacks, eventually resulted in a highly sophisticated submarine. Between 1986 and 1994 two more were built. See further website Marineschepen.nl, Walrusklasse onderzeeboten.10

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Frigates

Tromp Class [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
F 801 Tromp 306 1971 1975 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 806 De Ruyter 306 1971 1976 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
   
Kortenaer Class [b]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
F 807 Kortenaer 176 1975 1978 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 808 Callenburgh 176 1975 1979 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 809 Van Kinsbergen 176 1975 1980 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 810 Banckert 176 1976 1980 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 811 Piet Heyn 176 1977 1981 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 816 Abraham Crijnssen 176 1978 1983 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 823 Philips van Almonde 176 1977 1981 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
F 824 Bloys van Treslong 176 1978 1982 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
F 825 Jan van Brakel 176 1979 1983 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 826 Pieter Florisz 176 1980 1983 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
   
Jacob van Heemskerck Class [c]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
F 812 Jacob van Heemskerck 200 1981 1986 Koninklijke mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 813 Witte de With 200 1981 1986 Koninklijke mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
   
Van Speijk Class [d]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
F 802 Van Speijk [e] 180 1963 1967 Ned. Dok en Scheepsbouw Mij., Amsterdam
F 803 Van Galen 180 1963 1967 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 804 Tjerk Hiddes [f] 180 1964 1967 Ned. Dok en Scheepsbouw Mij., Amsterdam
F 805 Van Nes 180 1963 1967 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 814 Isaac Sweers [g] 180 1965 1968 Ned. Dok en Scheepsbouw Mij., Amsterdam
F 815 Evertsen [g] 180 1966 1967 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
   
Karel Doorman Class [h]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
F 827 Karel Doorman 154 1985 1991 Koninklijke mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
F 829 Willem van der Zaan 154 1985 1991 Koninklijke mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen

Notes
   
a. Tromp class: also referred to as Guided Missile Frigate (geleidewapenfregat, GW-fregat). Primary operational roles: flagship (staff ship) for a NATO task group, anti-air warfare (area air defence). Secondary operational roles: anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, coastal bombardment. Armament: 2 x Bofors gun 120 mm (twin turret); 2 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm; Tartar (1 x Mk 13 launcher) and NATO Sea Sparrow (1 x octuple launcher) surface to air missiles; Harpoon surface to surface missiles (2 x quadruple launcher); Mk 46 series anti-submarine torpedo's (2 x triple launcher); 1 x Westland SH-14B Lynx helicopter. Speed: 28 knots.
b. Kortenaar class: also referred to as Standard Frigate (standaardfregat, S-fregat). Operational role: escort for NATO task forces; anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare and anti-air warfare. Armament: 1 x OTO Melara gun 76 mm; 2 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm; 1 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm (anti-air self defence); Harpoon surface to surface missiles (2 x quadruple launcher); NATO Sea Sparrow (1 x octuple launcher) surface to air missiles; Mk 46 series anti-submarine torpedo's (2 x twin launcher); 1 x Westland Lynx helicopter (room for 2 x). Speed: 30 knots. Hr.Ms. Kortenaer and Hr.Ms. Callenburgh were initially fitted with an extra OTO Melara gun 76mm on the helicopter hangar, the other frigates were equipped with the Bofors 40 mm listed above. The Bofors guns, manually operated, were installed as a temporary measure to provide at least some close-in anti-air self defence whilst the Goalkeeper close-in weapon system (CWIS) 30 mm was under development. From August 1984 to October 1985 Hr.Ms. Callenburgh was temporarily fitted with a Goalkeeper CWIS for trials at sea. In 1985 the Royal Navy ordered ten Goalkeeper systems, one year later followed by an additional thirteen; these were delivered and installed on the standard frigates between 1988 and 1990, possibly 1992.12
c. Jacob van Heemskerck class: also referred to as Air Defence Frigate (luchtverdedigingsfregat, L-fregat). Variant of the Kortenaer-class frigate. Primary operational roles: anti-air warfare (area air defence), flagship (staff ship) for a NATO task group. Secondary operational roles: anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare. Armament: Standard Missile SM-1MR (1 x Mk 13 launcher) and NATO Sea Sparrow (1 x octuple launcher) surface to air missiles; Harpoon surface to surface missiles (2 x quadruple launcher); Mk 46 series anti-submarine torpedo's (2 x twin launcher); 1 x Goalkeeper CWIS (first installed on Hr.Ms Witte de With in 1986); possibly 2 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm; no helicopter. Speed: 30 knots. Hr.Ms. Jacob van Heemskerck came into service on 15 January 1986, Hr. Ms. Witte de With on 17 September 1986.
d. Van Speijk class: modified version of the British Leander-class frigate (Improved Type 12). Underwent mid-life modernisation between 1977 and 1983, but sold off between 1986 and 1990 for economical reasons. Operational role: escort for NATO task forces; anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare and anti-air warfare. Armament: 1 x OTO Melara gun 76 mm; Harpoon surface to surface missiles (2 x quadruple launcher); Sea Cat surface to air missiles (2 x quadruple launcher); Mk 46 series anti-submarine torpedo's (2 x triple launcher); 1 x Westland Lynx helicopter. Speed: 28.5 knots.13
e. Decommissioned on 13 September 1985 and sold off to the Indonesian Navy in February 1986.14
f. Decommissioned on 6 January 1986 and sold off to the Indonesian Navy in February 1986.14
g. In the early 1980s Hr.Ms. Isaac Sweers and Hr.Ms. Evertsen were each fitted with a AN/SQR-18A Towed Array Sonar system (TACTAS) for trials. Because the results were found to be "impressive" and to retain expertise these two frigates were the last of their class to be decommissioned, in 1990 and 1989 respectively. TACTAS would become standard on the new Karel Doorman class frigates (see below).15
h. Karel Doorman class: also referred to as Multi-purpose Frigate (multipurposefregat, M-fregat). Initially designed to replace the six 1950s-vintage Roofdier class "frigates" (US-built submarine chasers, decommissioned in 1983-1984). However, because of economical constraints it was decided that eight new (and technically advanced) Karel Doorman class frigates would not only replace the six outdated Roofdier vessels, but also the six recently modernised Van Speijk class frigates. Though labelled as all-round 'multi-purpose' ships the new frigates would be especially suited for anti-submarine warfare. They entered service between 1991 and 1995. For specifications, see website Schelde Naval Shipbuilding, Multipurpose Frigates (Karel Doorman class) (archived).16

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Fast Combat Support Ships 17
Poolster Class [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 832 Zuiderkruis 266 1973 1975 Verolme Ver. Scheepswerven, Almblasserdam
A 835 Poolster 200 1962 1964 Rotterdamse Droogdokmaatschappij

Note
   
a. Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis was a modified and modernised version of Hr.Ms. Poolster. Operational role: first-line logistic support for Royal Navy or NATO warships at sea (replenishment at sea, RAS). Cargo capacity: ± 10,300 tonnes, comprising food and drinking water, spare parts, ammunition and, predominantly, fuel (± 9,000 tonnes). Each ship could, provisionally, transport 150 marines (one reinforced company). Armament Hr.Ms. Poolster: 2 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm (anti-air self defence); 1 x depth charge rack; (room for) anti-submarine torpedoes for Westland SH-14B Lynx helicopter. Armament Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis: 2 x Oerlikon twin autocannon 20 mm (anti-air self defence); possibly also (room for) anti-submarine torpedoes for Westland SH-14B Lynx helicopter. Both ships had sizable helicopter decks and could each accommodate 3 x Westland Lynx helicopter, or for example two larger helicopters such as Royal (UK) Navy Westland WS-61 Sea Kings. Hr.Ms. Poolster could apparently accommodate up to five light helicopters. In peacetime normally one or two helicopters would be carried. Speed: 21 knots.18

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Mine Countermeasures Vessels

Onversaagd Class (Ex-US Aggressive Class)
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 855 Onbevreesd [a] – (67) 1952 1954 Astoria Marine Construction Co., Astoria (US)
   
Alkmaar Class (Tripartite Class) [b]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
M 850 Alkmaar 49 1978 1983 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 851 Delfzijl 49 1980 1983 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 852 Dordrecht 49 1981 1983 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 853 Haarlem 49 1981 1984 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 854 Harlingen 49 1981 1984 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 855 Scheveningen 49 1982 1984 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 856 Maassluis 49 1982 1984 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 857 Makkum 49 1983 1985 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 858 Middelburg 49 1983 1986 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 860 Schiedam 49 1984 1986 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
M 861 Urk 49 1984 1986 Van der Giessen-de Noord, Alblasserdam
   
Dokkum Class [c]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
M 801 Dokkum [d] – (38) 1953 1955 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
M 802 Hoogezand 38 1953 1955 Gusto v/h fa. A.F. Smulders, Schiedam
M 809 Naaldwijk 38 1953 1955 De Noord, Alblasserdam
M 810 Abcoude 38 1953 1956 Gusto v/h fa. A.F. Smulders, Schiedam
M 812 Drachten 38 1953 1956 Niestern Scheepsbouw Unie, Hellevoetsluis
M 813 Ommen 38 1953 1956 J. & K. Smits Scheepswerf, Kinderdijk
M 815 Giethoorn 38 1953 1956 L. Smit & Zn., Kinderdijk
M 817 Venlo 38 1954 1956 Arnhemse Scheepsbouw Maatschappij
M 823 Naarden 38 1954 1956 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
M 827 Hoogeveen 38 1955 1956 De Noord, Alblasserdam
M 830 Sittard 38 1955 1956 Niestern Scheepsbouw Unie, Hellevoetsluis
M 841 Gemert 38 1955 1956 J. & K. Smits Scheepswerf, Kinderdijk

Note
   
a. Headquarters and support ship for a mine countermeasures group or flottilla. Converted Ex-US Aggressive-class ocean-going minesweeper. Armament: 1 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm. Speed: 15.5 knots. Decommissioned on 15 May 1982 and placed in 'wet conservation' (low grade reserve). Disposed of on 18 December 1987 and sold to be scrapped on 17 March 1989.19
b. Alkmaar class: minehunter of the 'Tripartite' type jointly developed by the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Armament: 1 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm. Speed: 15 knots. Fifteen ships were ordered; between 1987 and 1989 four more entered service.
c. Dokkum class: coastal minesweeper, sometimes referred to as "Western Union' type as it was built to Western European Union (WEU) specifications. Modernised in the 1970s. Armament: 2 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm, except Hr.Ms. Ommen which had 1 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm. Speed: fourteen knots. Five vessels were permanently held in reserve as a cost-cutting measure; see Naval Command Netherlands, The Fleet (Sea): Operations and Readiness.  
d. Decommissioned on 15 April 1983 as minehunter. Apparently there were plans to recommission her; first per 12 December 1984 and then per 12 December 1985, as minesweeper; but this did not happen. On 1 November 1986 Hr.Ms. Dokkum was renamed Hr.Ms. Van Speijk and given the pennant number Y 8001, by which time it had reentered service as a fuel research vessel.20

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Large Patrol Craft

Balder Class [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
P 803 Bulgia [b] 27 1953 1954 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
P 804 Freyr [c] 27 1954 1954 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
P 805 Hadda [d] 27 1954 1955 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder

Notes
   
a. Balder class: large coastal patrol boat. Armament: 1 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm; 2 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm; 1 x single Mousetrap anti-submarine rocket projector; 2 x depth charge rack; 2 x depth charge thrower; 3 x depth charge chute. Speed: 15.5 knots.
b. Recommissioned as training ship for the Royal Naval Institute in Den Helder (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, KIM) on 30 September 1986 with pennant number A 880.21
c. Decommissioned on 14 November 1986 and disposed of on 28 November 1986.21
d. Decommissioned on 14 November 1986 and placed in reserve.21

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Landing Craft

Landing Craft Assault Mk 2 [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
L 9530 3 1982 1984 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9531 3 1982 1984 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9532 3 1983 1985 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9533 3 1984 1985 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9534 3 1985 1985 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9535 3 1985 1987 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
   
Landing Craft Assault Mk 1 [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
L 9510 – [b] 3 1961 1962 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9511 – [b] 3 1962 1963 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9512 3 1962 1963 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9513 3 1962 1963 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
L 9514 3 1963 1963 A. Le Compte Co. Inc., Jutphaas
L 9515 3 1963 1963 A. Le Compte Co. Inc., Jutphaas
L 9517 – [b] 3 1963 1963 A. Le Compte Co. Inc., Jutphaas
L 9518 3 1962 1963 Verolme Scheepswerf, N.V., Heusden
L 9520 3 1962 1964 Verolme Scheepswerf, N.V., Heusden
L 9522 – [b] 3 1963 1963 Verolme Scheepswerf, N.V., Heusden

Notes
   
a. Polyester landing craft (Landing Craft Assault, LCA) for the Marine Corps, providing limited amphibious movement capability (ship to shore, tactical and logistic). Armament: 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. Speed: 11,6 knots. Ten LCA were assigned to the Boat Company Group. Five LCA Mk 1 were 'winterised' for deployment to northern Norway: fitted with a roof and probably heating. The Mk 1 could transport twenty-five marines with arctic equipment, or thirty-four marines (one infantry platoon) with 'European' equipment, or 1 x Land Rover. The Mk 2 was slightly larger than the Mk 1 and could instead of the aforementioned loads also carry 1 x Volvo Bv-202 over-snow vehicle. It had a roof, heating and a coastal navigation radar. A second series of six LCA Mk 2 was cancelled in 1986 in favour of six LCA Mk 3 which had a larger capacity; these entered service between 1990 and 1992.22
b. Decommissioned on 8 December 1986. L 9510 was sold, probably to be scrapped. L 9511 and L 9517 went to Joost Dourlein Barracks, probably to be used for training purposes. L 9522 went to the Navy Fire Service (Marinebrandweer) in Den Helder.23 

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Training Ships

Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 903 Zeefakkel [a] 26 1949 1951 J.&K. Smit Scheepswerf, Kinderdijk
Y 8050 Urania [b] 17 1928 1938 Haarlemse Scheepsbouw Mij.
M 826 Grijpskerk [c] 1955 1956 De Groot & Van Vliet, Slikkerveer
D 811 Gelderland [d] 1951 1955 Wilton Feijenoord N.V., Schiedam

Notes
   
a. Former survey ship. No armament. Speed: 12 knots.
b. Schooner for officer training. Complement comprised five staff and twelve trainees. No armament. Speed: 5 knots by engine, 10 knots by sail.
c. Former Wildervank-class minesweeper (identical to Dokkum class) serving as instruction vessel for Royal Navy Technical Schooling (Technische Opleidingen Koninklijke Marine, TOKM) in Amsterdam. No armament. Speed: 14 knots. Per 27 April 1985 transferred to the civilian Sea Cadet Corps (Zeekadettenkorps) on loan.
d. Former Holland-class destroyer (onderzeebootjager), laid up in Amsterdam as instruction vessel for Royal Navy Technical Schooling (Technische Opleidingen Koninklijke Marine, TOKM). No armament. 

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Accommodation Ships

Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 886 Cornelis Drebbel [a] 201 1970 1971 N.V. Scheepswerf Voorwaarts, Hoogezand
A 887 Thetis [b] 106 1984 1985 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
A 891 Soemba [c] (136) 1924 1926 N.V. Wilton's Machinefabriek en Scheepswerf, Rotterdam

Notes
   
a. 'Boatel' for the Submarine Service (Onderzeedienst, OZD): large pontoon with three-storey building on top of it. No armament, no propulsion. Location: Rotterdam. Accommodated personnel involved in maintenance or completion of submarines at the Rotterdamse Droogdokmaatschappij or Wilton-Feijenoord shipyards, also start-up crews of Alkmaar class minehunters being completed at the Van der Giessen shipyards. 
b. 'Boatel' for the Diving and Dismantling School (Duik- en Demonteerschool, DDS): large pontoon with three-storey building on top of it. No armament, no propulsion. Location: Den Oever. Also serving as barracks for the Amphibious Section of the Marine Corps. Commissioned on 14 March 1985.
c. Former Flores-class gunboat serving as accommodation vessel for the Diving and Dismantling School (Duik- en Demonteerschool, DDS) and the Amphibious Section of the Marine Corps. No armament, possibly no propulsion. Decommissioned on 9 June 1985 and sold to be scrapped on 20 June 1985. Replaced by Hr.Ms. Thetis (see above). Complement was 136 men in 1924.

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Survey Ships

Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 906 Tydeman [a] 77 1975 1976 B.V. Scheepswerf en Machinefabriek De Merwede, Hardinxveld-Giessendam
   
Buyskes Class [b]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 904 Buyskes 45 1972 1973 Boele's Scheepswerven en Machinefabrieken N.V., Bolnes
A 905 Blommendal 45 1972 1973 Boele's Scheepswerven en Machinefabrieken N.V., Bolnes

Notes
   
a. Hydrographic and oceanographic survey and research ship. Normally operating in the Atlantic Ocean. Complement included 15 scientists. No armament. Speed: 15 knots. Room for 1 x Westland Lynx helicopter.
b. Buyskes class: hydrographic survey ship with limited oceanographic and meteorological capability. Mainly operating in the North Sea. No armament. Speed: 13 knots.

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Tugboats

Wielingen Type [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 872 Westgat 9 1967 1968 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
A 873 Wielingen 9 1967 1968 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder

Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 871 Wambrau [b] 10 1956 1957 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
A 870 Wamandai [c] 10 1958 1962 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
   
Berkel Type [d]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
Y 8037 Berkel 9 1967 1968 Scheepswerf v/h H.H. Bodewes, Millingen
Y 8030 Dintel 9 1967 1968 Scheepswerf v/h H.H. Bodewes, Millingen
Y 8039 Dommel 10 1956 1957 Scheepswerf v/h H.H. Bodewes, Millingen
Y 8040 IJssel 10 1956 1957 Scheepswerf v/h H.H. Bodewes, Millingen
   
Pennant Name Complement Launched Commissioned Built by
Y 8014 3 1944 1967 Boot, Alphen aan den Rijn
Y 8016 Bambi [e] 4 1953 1953? Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
Y 8017 Dombo [e] 4 1957 1957? Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
Y 8028 – [f] 7 1938 1946 Scheepswerf J. Vos & Zn., Foxhol

Notes
   
a. Wielingen type: coastal tug. No armament. Speed: 12 knots. Stationed at Den Helder.
b. Coastal tug. No armament. Speed: 10,8 knots. Stationed at Den Helder.
c. Coastal tug. Armament: 2 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm. Speed: 11 knots. Stationed at Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Decommissioned on 1 July 1985 and sold on 14 November 1985.
d. Berkel type: harbour tug, specially designed for use at Den Helder. No armament. Speed: 10,6 knots.
e. Harbour tug. No armament. Speed: 7 knots.
f. Harbour tug. No armament. Speed: 10 knots. In 1986 named Eems again, her original name.

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Torpedo Tenders

Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 856 Mercuur [a] 67 1952 1954 Peterson Builders Inc., Sturgeon Bay (US)
A 900 Mercuur [b] 39 1985 1987 Koninklijke Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen
A 923 Van Bochove [c] 8 1961 1962 N.V. Zaanlandse Scheepsbouw Mij., Zaandam

Notes
   
a. Submarine support ship (torpedowerkschip, TWS). Converted Ex-US Aggressive-class ocean-going minesweeper. Armament: 1 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm. Speed: 15.5 knots. Decommissioned on 12 December 1987 and replaced by A 900 Mercuur, see below.
b. Submarine support ship (torpedowerkschip, TWS). Replacement for A 856 Mercuur, commissioned on 21 August 1987. Armament: 2 x Oerlikon autocannon 20 mm. Speed: 14 knots.
c. Torpedo calibration vessel (torpedoinschietvaartuig), originally with two submerged 53.3 cm torpedo tubes. Speed: 8 knots. The tubes were reportedly removed in 1976, after which the ship was used as communications and harbour service vessel.24 Decommissioned on 30 September 1986, sold and disposed of on 18 December 1986.

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Diving Tenders

Dokkum Class [a]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
M 806 Roermond 38 1953 1955 Wilton-Feijenoord, Schiedam
M 820 Woerden 38 1954 1957 Haarlemse Scheepsbouw Mij.
   
Triton Type [b]
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 848 Triton 8 1964 1964 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
A 849 Nautilus 8 1964 1964 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
A 850 Hydra 8 1964 1965 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder
   
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
A 847 Argus [c] 8 1938 1957 Rijkswerf Willemsoord, Den Helder

Notes
   
a. Dokkum class diving tender: converted coastal minesweeper. Modernised in the 1970s. Armament: 2 x Bofors autocannon 40 mm. Speed: fourteen knots. 
b. Triton Type: harbour diving vessel. No armament. Speed: 9 knots.
c. No armament. Speed: 8 knots.

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Auxiliary Vessels 25

Survey launch (harbour communication)
Pennant Name Complement Laid down Commissioned Built by
Y 8620 – [b] 10 1949 1950 De Groot & Van Vliet, Slikkerveer
   
Anchorage communication vessels
Pennant Name Built
Y 8216 1951
Y 8217 1951
Y 8220 1952
   
Transport vessels
Pennant Name Type Built
Y 8500 Cargo vessel 1953
Y 8501 Cargo vessel 1951
Y 8480 Water tanker vessel 1952
Y 8512 Torpedo transport vessel 1950
   
Cargo barges
Pennant Name Built
Y 8299 1935
Y 8321 1935
Y 8322 1935
Y 8324 1912
Y 8325 1952
Y 8327 1918
Y 8330 1965
Y 8331 1965
Y 8332 1940
Y 8333 1965
Y 8334 1965
Y 8337 1956
Y 8338 1956
Y 8339 1963
Y 8340 1963
Y 8341 1963
Y 8343 1984
Y 8344 1984
Y 8345 1984
Y 8346 1984
Y 8403 Lena 1900
   
Fuel transport and supply vessels
Pennant Name Type Built
Y 8335 Fuel lighter 1952
Y 8538 Fuel lighter 1955
Y 8536 Patria [b] Fuel oil lighter 1963
Y 8347 Fuel lighter 1982
Y 8348 Fuel lighter 1982
Y 8349 Fuel lighter 1984
Y 8350 Fuel lighter 1984
Y 8351 Fuel lighter 1986
Y 8352 Fuel lighter 1986
   
Steam emission vessels
Pennant Name Built
Y 8122 1937
Y 8260 1940
   
Cleaning vessels
Pennant Name Type Built
Y 8262 Tank-cleaning boat 1918
Y 8263 Ship's surface flushing boat 1967
   
Repair and construction vessels
Pennant Name Type Built
Y 8342 Het Beultje Working barge 1982
Y 8678 Small floating dock 1949
Y 8679 Small floating dock 1960
Y 8514 Floating crane 1974
Y 8676 Floating power station 1962
   
Docking and berthing fenders and pontoons
Pennant Name Type Built
Y 8594 Docking pontoon 1956
Y 8595 Docking pontoon 1956
Y 8597 Submarine docking pontoon 1971
Y 8598 Submarine docking pontoon 1971
Y 8599 Submarine docking pontoon 1977
Y 8600 Intermediate pontoon 1977
Y 8601 Intermediate pontoon 1977
Y 8602 Intermediate pontoon 1977
Y 8603 Intermediate pontoon 1977
Y 8604 Floating fender (catamaran) 1983
Y 8605 Floating fender (catamaran) 1983
Y 8606 Floating fender (catamaran) 1984
Y 8607 Floating fender (catamaran) 1984
Y 8608 Floating fender (catamaran) 1984
Y 8609 Floating fender (catamaran) 1984
Y 8610 Floating fender (catamaran) 1984
Y 8611 Floating fender (catamaran) 1984
Y 8612 Floating fender (catamaran) 1986
Y 8613 Floating fender (catamaran) 1986
Y 8614 Floating fender (catamaran) 1986
Y 8615 Floating fender (catamaran) 1986
Y 8616 Floating fender (catamaran) 1986
Y 8617 Floating fender (catamaran) 1986
Y 8618 Floating fender (catamaran) Cancelled 1986-1987
Y 8619 Floating fender (catamaran) Cancelled 1986-1987
Y 8711 Pontoon 1940
Y 8713 Pontoon 1940
Y 8714 Pontoon 1940
   
Diving rafts
Pennant Name Built
Part II: List of ShipsY 8579 [c] 1986
Y 8580 1985
Y 8581 1986
Y 8582 [d] 1986
Y 8583 1951
Y 8584 1951
Y 8585 1951
Y 8586 1951
Y 8588 1952
Y 8589 1952
Y 8590 1952
Y 8592 1953
   
Targets
Pennant Name Type Built
Y 8692 Small target ?
Y 8694 High-speed target (catamaran) ?
Y 8695 High-speed target (catamaran) ?
Y 8696 High-speed target (catamaran) ?
Y 8697 High-speed target (catamaran) 1978
Y 8698 High-speed target (catamaran) 1978
Y 8699 High-speed target (catamaran) 1982
Y 8700 Target ?

Notes
   
a. Former dredging boat Dreg IV. Used for communication duties in the Rotterdam area. No armament. Speed: 10 knots. Decomissioned on 22 October 1986. 
b. Based at Den Helder. Used for transport from Rotterdam and bunkering.
c. Diving raft with kayak barn.
d. Diving raft with propeller and davit.

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Light Craft 25

Type Quantity
Launch (commander's launch) 2
Launch 57
Motor whaleboat 8
Motor scow 22
Motor yawl 10
Sport sailing yacht with onboard motor 4
Sport sailing yacht (various types) 14
Dinghy/sloop 22
Rowing punt 7
Rowing yawl (14 foot) 10
Rowing yawl (10 foot) 3

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Part I: Organisation | Part II: List of Ships | Part III: Aircraft 26 | Land Based Logistic Support | Wartime Organisation

Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft
Type Crew Quantity Registration Numbers
Lockheed P-3C Orion (Update II.5) [a]
10-13 13 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312
   
Helicopters
Type Crew Quantity Registration Numbers
Westland Lynx Mk 25 [b] 3 5 260, 261, 262, 264, 265 
Westland Lynx Mk 27 [c] 3 9 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274 
Westland Lynx Mk 81 [d] 3 8 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283

Notes
   
a. Long range maritime surveillance and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft. Primary operational role: ASW. Secondary operational roles: reconnaissance (Over The Horizon Targeting, OTHT), surveillance. The P-3C Orion's sensors were primarily suited to detect nuclear-powered submarines. Armament, non-cumulative: up to 8 x Mk 46 series anti-submarine torpedo, up to 8 x Mk 54 depth charge, up to 3 x 1000 lb mines, up to 7 x 2000 lb mines, up to 2 x Mk 101 Mk 101 nuclear depth charges, up to 3 x B57 nuclear depth charges; 87 x sonobuoy; pyrotechnics, signals. Maximum payload up to ± 9070 kg in bomb bay and on external pylons. Cruising speed: 608 km/h. Patrol speed: 381 km/h. The nuclear depth charges were property of the United States and stored under US Navy custody at RAF St. Mawgan in the United Kingdom, which was one of the bases from which Dutch P-3C Orions would operate in wartime. These nuclear bombs were intended to destroy enemy nuclear submarines at large depths. Authorisation for use would, ultimately, be a matter for the president of the United States. The request sequence was probably similar to the procedures to authorise a nuclear mission for the dual capable artillery of the Royal Army; see 1 (NL) Corps Artillery, Dual Capable Artillery. Within NATO only the US Navy, the Royal (UK) Navy and the Royal Navy had this nuclear ASW capability.27 Operated by Aircraft Squadrons 2, 320 and 321 of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.
b. Dutch designation UH-14A. Export version of the Lynx HAS.2 ("Navy Lynx"). Operational role: training, utility work (transport, liaison), search and rescue (SAR). Most likely also used for counterterrorism operations; see Naval Command Netherlands, Part II, note g. Operated from shore. No armament. Maximum speed: 320 km/h. Cruising speed: 230 km/h. Fitted with rescue hoist.28 Operated by Aircraft Squadron 7 of the Helicopter Group.
c. Dutch designation SH-14B. Heavier onboard version for operations from frigates or fast combat support ships. Primary operational role: ASW. Secondary operational roles: reconnaissance (OTHT), utility work. Equipped with Alcatel DUAV-4A dipping sonar. Armament: 2 x Mk 46 series anti-submarine torpedo or 2 x depth charge. Maximum speed: 320 km/h. Cruising speed: 230 km/h. Fitted with rescue hoist.28 Operated by Aircraft Squadron 860 of the Helicopter Group.
d. Dutch designation SH-14C. As Mk 27 (SH-14B) but without dipping sonar; instead equipped, at least initially, with a Texas Instruments AN/ASQ-81(V)2 towed Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) system.28 A helicopter with only MAD proved to be of little use however, and these systems were reportedly removed in 1984, after which five helicopters were prepared to have Alcatel DUAV-4A dipping sonars installed. But no additional dipping sonars were acquired. This meant that the Royal Navy in 1985 and later years had only nine submarine-detecting helicopters to support eighteen frigates in ASW operations. After the removal of the MAD systems the Mk 81 (SH-14C) helicopters were mostly used for training and utility purposes; also, in a tactical role, for reconnaissance (OTHT) and to drop torpedo's.29 The Mk 27 helicopters were operated by Aircraft Squadron 860 of the Helicopter Group.
 
Land-Based Logistic Support

Most of the Royal Navy's land based logistic support units, such as schools, workshops, stores and personnel facilities, were not part of the military organisation but fell directly under the Minister of Defence, who held full logistic authority. This authority was delegated to the Chief of the Naval Staff (who was also Commander-in-Chief of the Navy), the Director of Personnel Royal Navy, the Director of Materiel Royal Navy, and the Director of Economic Management Royal Navy.
        

In peacetime military commanders under the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy could thus only receive and execute logistic tasks, though they could be given coordinative authority in specific cases. In wartime (assumably: on mobilisation) this coordinative authority would change into directive authority. Both in peace and wartime military commanders could, however, redistribute supplies if operational circumstances required this; they would inform the Minister (probably in the person of one of the four delegates mentioned above) as soon as possible.30
   
Because these logistic support units belonged to the ministerial rather than the military organisation they are not covered on these pages. However, to give at least an impression of the Royal Navy's land based logistic support organisation, its main elements are listed below.31
   
A number of logistic support units under ministerial control were labeled Special Organisation Units (Bijzondere Organisatie-Eenheden, BOE), probably because their tasks were directly linked with the operational rather than the administrative or policy realm. The BOEs falling under three of the aforementioned four logistic sub-authorities (the Director of Economic Management Royal Navy had no BOEs) were the following: 32
   
Chief of the Naval Staff (Chef Marinestaf, CMS):
  • Hydrographic Service (Dienst der Hydrografie, DHYD), Den Haag
  • Naval Staff School (Marinestafschool, STAFSCH), Den Haag
  • Naval Attachés (Marineattaché's, MARAT's) posted at various embassies
Director of Personnel Royal Navy (Directeur Personeel Koninklijke Marine, DPKM):
  • Naval Hospital (Marinehospitaal, MHO), Overveen
  • Naval Personnel Examination and Selection Centre (Marine Keurings- en Selectiecentrum, MARKEURSEL), Amsterdam
  • Bureau of the Chief Fleet Chaplain (Bureau van de Hoofdvlootaalmoezenier, HVLAM), Den Haag?
  • Bureau of the Chief Fleet Padre (Bureau van de Hoofdvlootpredikant, HVLOP), Den Haag?
Director of Materiel Royal Navy (Directeur Materieel Koninklijke Marine, DMKM):
  • State Shipyard Willemsoord (Rijkswerf Willemsoord, RW), Den Helder
  • Armament Workshops (Bewapeningswerkplaatsen, BW), Den Helder
  • Naval Electronic and Optical Workshop (Marine Elektronisch en Optisch Bedrijf, MEOB), Oegstgeest
  • Centre for Automation of Weapon and Command Systems (Centrum voor Automatisering van Wapen- en Commandosystemen, CAWCS), Den Haag
  • Naval Stores Service (Marinemagazijndienst, MMD), Den Helder?
  • Naval Transport Service (Marinevervoersdienst, MVERVDNST), Amsterdam? and Central Transport Equipment Workshop (Centrale Werkplaats Transportmaterieel, CWT), Den Helder
  • NATO Infrastructure Depots (NAVO Infrastructuurdepots), Den Helder
  • Chemistry Laboratory (Scheikundig Laboratorium), Den Helder
The schools of the Royal Navy fell under the Director of Personnel Royal Navy: 33
  • School for Primary Maritime and Military Education (School voor Eerste Maritiem-militaire Vorming, SEMMV), Den Helder
  • Royal Naval Institute (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, KIM), Den Helder
  • Operational School (Operationele School, OPSCHOOL), Den Helder
  • Management and Education Theory School (School voor Bedrijfsvoering en Onderwijskunde, SVBO), Den Helder
  • Naval Aviation School (Marineluchtvaartschool, MLS), Valkenburg 
  • Mine Countermeasures School (Mijnenbestrijdingsschool, MBS), Oostende (BE) 34
  • Diving and Dismantling School (Duik- en Demonteerschool, DDS), Den Oever
  • Royal Navy Technical Schooling (Technische Opleidingen der Koninklijke Marine, TOKM), Amsterdam
  • Weapon Engineering School (Wapentechnische School, WAPTECHSCH), Den Helder
  • School for NBCD and Operational Safety (School voor NBCD en Bedrijfsveiligheid, SNBCDBV), Den Helder 35
  • Logistic School (Logistieke School, LOGSCH), Amsterdam
  • Medical and Dental Personnel Schooling (Opleiding Geneeskundig en Tandheelkundig Personeel), Overveen
In wartime the Royal Navy's logistic organisation was in principle the same as in peacetime.36 <

Wartime Organisation

For the execution of NATO or national contingency plans or war operations the Commander-in Chief of the Navy would assign Royal Navy units and formations to NATO or national commanders. Transfer of operational authority to NATO commanders would, dislocation and readiness permitting, in principle occur at Simple Alert and definitively at Reinforced Alert. Assignments would be as follows:
   
To Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT):
To Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN): 
To Naval Commander Netherlands / Admiral Benelux (CZMNED / ABNL):
To Naval Commander Netherlands Antilles (CZMNA):
Fleet and Marine Corps units that were not yet ready for transfer to NATO commanders due to maintenance, working up, mobilisation or dislocation would, until ready, remain under operational authority of Naval Commander Netherlands or Commander, Marine Corps respectively. It will be noted that Naval Commander Netherlands/Admiral Benelux also held the NATO Benelux Subarea Channel Command (BENECHAN) and was, as COMBENECHAN, a subcommander of CINCHAN.36 <

_________________________________________________
   
1. HTK 1983-1984, kamerstuknr. 18169 ondernr. 2 (Defensienota 1984-1993), 87. Jaarboek KM 1986, 9. Jaarboek KM 1987, 15. Raven, De kroon, 156.
2. Naval Staff part of the Ministry of Defence: Jaarboek KM 1985, 10-11. NL-HaNA, archiefinventaris 2.13.114, 13, 17. Brouwer et al., Vloot en politiek, 112-113, 192. Confusingly, the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff (Plaatsvervangend Chef van de Marinestaf, PCMS) also held the title of Chief of Staff of the Commander in Chief of the Navy (Chef Staf Bevelhebber der Zeestrijdkrachten), which incorrectly suggests the existence of a separate military staff. See Brouwer et al., op. cit., 113. WEU: Western European Union. Intelligence and Security Division of the Naval Staff and Naval Intelligence Service: Kluiters, De Nederlandse, 236-238; cf. Jensen en Platje, De MARID403 and Jaarboek KM 1985, 14. It appears that there was a considerable overlap between both organisations. Kluiters, op. cit., 236. This was probably not unlike the overlap between the Intelligence and Security Division of the Army Staff and the Army Intelligence Service; see Royal Army, Part IV, note c, and footnote 13.
3. Jaarboek KM 1985, 53.
4. Jaarboek KM 1986, 143. Van Dissel en Groen, In de West, 96-97.
5. Jaarboek KM 1987, 65
6. Concept mobilisation regulations: NL-HaNA 2.12.56 inv. nr. 1876, VVKM 38.1 Mobilisatievoorschrift der Koninklijke Marine, deel 1: Personeel, Bijlage 5 d.d. 26 oktober 1983. It should be noted that in this document, contrary to Royal Navy practice, corporals are counted with the enlisted, not with the sub-officers; this also muddles the total Royal Navy war strength in that respect. Contemporary publications: IISS, The Military Balance, 1986-1987, 73. IISS, The Military Balance 1987-1988, 71. Cordesman, Central Region Forces, 128. These three publications give the following numbers, respectively: ± 20,000 reservists (of which 7,500 on standby readiness); ± 19,700 (7,000); ± 15.000 (7,500). 
7. For the List of Ships the following sources were used: Jaarboeken KM 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987 (overzichten van de oorlogsschepen). Van Amstel, De schepen, passim. Moore, Jane's Fighting Ships, 348-358. Nooteboom, Deugdelijke schepen, passim. Website Marineschepen.nl, passim. Website Dutch Submarines, passim. Additional or more specified references are noted below. The prefix to Royal Navy ships was Hr.Ms., short for Harer Majesteits (Her Majesty's). See also website Marineschepen.nl, Zr.Ms. (Zijner Majesteits) en Hr.Ms. (Harer Majesteits).
8. Secret intelligence operations carried out by these boats during the Cold War are described in detail by Jaime Karremannns in In het diepste geheim. Spionage-operaties van Nederlandse onderzeeboten van 1968 tot 1991 (Amsterdam: Marineschepen.nl, 2017). English edition: In Deepest Secrecy: Dutch Submarine Espionage Operations from 1968 to 1991 (Amsterdam: Marineschepen.nl, 2018)
9. In 1985 the two Zwaardvis-class boats were not capable of using Mk 48 torpedoes. In 1982 budgetary constraints meant that the necessary modifications to the fire control system could not take place. Schoonoord, Pugno, 253. It appears that the boats were made Mk 48 capable in or after 1988. De Bles, Boven en Homburg, Onderzeeboten!, 104. Website Marineschepen.nl, Zwaardvisklasse onderzeeboten.
10. Because building the first two boats of the new Walrus class took longer than planned Hr.Ms. Dolfijn and Hr.Ms. Zeehond had to remain in service longer than anticipated. To reduce costs yet avoid the need for NATO consultation Hr.Ms. Dolfijn was placed in reserve in 1982, without maintenance, to be used for crew training purposes in the expectation that Hr.Ms. Walrus would be launched in 1985 (and would become operational soon thereafter). Schoonoord, loc. cit. Technical dificulties, financial scandal and subsequent political turmoil that became known as the "Walrus Affair" further slowed down the project. To make matters worse Hr.Ms. Walrus (S 802), laid down in 1979, was seriously damaged by a fire in 1986. Only in 1990 the first of four Walrus class submarines became operational: Hr.Ms. Zeeleeuw (S 803), laid down in 1983. Nooteboom, op. cit., Hoofdstuk 10. Website Marineschepen.nl, Walrusklasse onderzeebotenIn the end the remaining three three-cylinder boats Hr.Ms. Zeehond, Hr.Ms Potvis and Hr.Ms. Tonijn would remain in service until 1990-1992. Van Amstel, 58. Website Marineschepen.nl, Driecilinder onderzeeboten. It appears that in or after 1988 they were modified to use Mk 48 torpedoes. Ibid
11. Jaarboek KM 1982, 302, 304. Jaarboek KM 1985, 116, 191. Van Amstel, loc. cit. Website Dutchsubmarines.com, Dolfijn (3). Website Marineschepen.nl, Driecilinder onderzeeboten. See also footnote 6.
12. Goalkeeper CIWS: Jaarboek KM 1985, 104. Jaarboek KM 1986, 176. Nooteboom, op. cit., 138. Website Marineschepen.nl, Kortenaer klasse (S-)fregattenThales Goalkeeper CIWS. Website Onze Vloot, passim. In 1986-1987 Hr.Ms. Witte de With (Jacob van Heemskerck class) was the first ship to become operational with Goalkeeper. Jaarboek KM 1986, 80. Website Onze Vloot, Hr.Ms. Witte de With F 813.
13. The name of the ship class and frigate is sometimes spelled as "Van Speyk", notably in Jaarboek KM 1984, 1985, 1986. In recent years "Van Speijk" appears to have become the preferred spelling. See also this picture (1974) in which both variants are used. Harpoon launcher configuration: website De Witte Olifant, De fregatten Van Speyk klasse. The Van Speyk-class was not disposed of for operational reasons: these recently modernised ships formed a valuable contribution to the Royal Navy's anti-submarine warfare capacity. Schoonoord, op. cit., 285, 296. The Royal Navy, however, faced serious budgetary problems and a political desire to support the struggling Dutch shipbuilding industry through new orders (see Frigates, note h). Schoonoord, op. cit., Hoofdstuk 5. Website Marineschepen .nl, Karel Doormanklasse fregatten (M-fregatten).
14. Jaarboek KM 1986, 204. The four remaining frigates were sold off to Indonesia between 1986 and 1990. Van Amstel, op. cit., 29-31. 
15. Jaarboek KM 1984, 29. Jaarboek  KM 1985, 25. Schoonoord, op. cit., 268.
16. Rommelse, Follow me, 18-19. Schoonoord, op. cit., 259, 266, 296. Website Marineschepen.nl, Karel Doormanklasse fregatten (M-fregatten).
17. Ship type designation: Moore, op. cit., 356. Hr.Ms. Poolster and Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis are also referred to as Auxiliary Oiler Replenishment ships (AOR), for example in P.A. Wolff, Conceptual Design of Warships (thesis, 2000), 119. Also as Underway Replenishment Ships, for example on website GlobalSecurity, HNLMS Amsterdam and HNLMS Zuiderkruis AOR. 
18. Operational role: Wolff, loc.cit. Sea Kings: website Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis, gegevens.
19. Jaarboek KM 1982, 339. Van Amstel, op. cit., 115-117. Website Onze Vloot, Hr.Ms. Onbevreesd. Low grade reserve: Moore, op. cit., 354.
20. Decommissioned: Jaarboek KM 1983, 292, 475. Apparent plans to recommission: Jaarboek KM 1984, 361. Jaarboek KM 1985, 198. Recommissioned as fuel research vessel: Jaarboek KM 1986, 192. Van Amstel, op. cit., 152. Moore reports that the ship "operated" for the Royal Naval Institute (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, KIM) in Den Helder, but that seems incorrect. Moore, op.cit., 354. See also Large Patrol Craft, note a. Hr.Ms. Dokkum as minehunter: four Dokkum-class minesweepers had been converted into minehunters in the 1960s-1970s. By 1985 these were no longer in service; see Naval Command Netherlands, footnote 12. Also Jaarboek KM 1983, 536.
21. Jaarboek KM 1986, 205. Van Amstel, op. cit., 43-44, 139. The patrol craft were taken out of service as a cost-cutting measure, they would not be replaced. Schoonoord, op.cit., 265.
22. Mk 1 and Mk 2 load capacities: website Stichting Keep Them Landing Nederland. See also Van Amstel, op. cit., 134. Speed: Van Amstel reports 10.5 knots for Mk 2. Second series cancelled: Jaarboek KM 1986, 156. Six LCA Mk 3: see for example Jaarboek KM 1995, 272.
23. Van Amstel, op. cit., 133-135
24. Website Dutchsubmarines.com, Tender Van Bochove. 
25. The English translations of the (often traditional) names of Dutch ship's types in these sections may well contain inaccuracies. For the original Dutch terms move your mouse to the English term in the tables. These may be entered at the website Maritiem Digitaal for visual reference.
26. Jaarboek KM 1985, 208-209
27. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, NDPP Concept krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1984-1993 d.d. maart 1983, 63. Geldhof, 70 jaar, 216-217. Schoonoord, op. cit., 290. Website P-3 Orion Research Group The Netherlands, Technical Data. For an overview of the P-3C Orion's operational history in the Royal Navy up to 1994, see Borst, Orions. Nuclear depth charges: Schoonoord, op. cit., 143-144, 223, 289. In various publications the Mk 101 "Lulu" nuclear depth charge is mentioned in relation to the P-3C Orion. The Mk 101 carried a W34 warhead with a reported yield of 11 kilotons. Website The Nuclear Weapon Archive, Complete List of All U.S. Nuclear Weapons. However, as the Mk 101 was retired by the US Navy in the early 1970s it seems more likely that Dutch P-3C Orions, which entered service between 1982 and 1984, would carry a depth charge version of the B57 nuclear bomb. The B57, also referred to as Mk 57, reportedly had a variable yield up to 10 kilotons but may have been in the 15 to 20 kiloton range. Clearwater, J., U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Canada (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1999), 210-211. Website GlobalSecurity, B57 Tactical Free-Fall Bomb. For reference: the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 had a yield of 15 to 16 kilotons. Website The Nuclear Weapon archive, loc. cit. 
28. Geldhof, loc. cit. Website Nederlandse Modelbouw en Luchtvaartsite, Westland Lynx.
29. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, loc. cit. Schoonoord, op. cit., 285-286. The aforementioned NL-HaNA document notes that a naval task group of seven frigates and one fast combat support ship would, or should, include eight onboard helicopters. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 63.The Royal Navy had no extra dipping sonars in stock; in 1975 ten DUAV-4A were bought for the Lynx Mk 27 (SH-14B), of which one was assumably lost when in March 1982 Lynx nr. 275 crashed in the Atlantic Ocean. HTK 1986-1987, kamerstuknr. 19897 ondernr. 2 (Rapport Lynx-helikopers Koninklijke Marine), 15, 18. MAD removed: website Nederlandse Modelbouw en Luchtvaartsite, loc. cit. Website International Plastic Modellers' Society Nederland, MLD Westland Lynx. In 1985 and later years: this rather serious shortage may have existed until 1991-1993, when the three Lynx types were modernised and standardised to SH-14D, of which sixteen were fitted with Alcatel dipping sonar. Website Nederlandse Modelbouw en Luchtvaartsite, loc. cit.  
30. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657, concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195A (VVKM 195A) inzake bestuur en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 3-8. Ibid., concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195B (VVKM 195B) inzake de opdracht, taken en organisatie van de zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 1/2-6. The four 'delegates' of ministerial logistic authority together formed the Admiralty Board (Admiraliteitsraad), see Ministry of Defence. Coordinative authority: coördinatiebevoegdheid. Directive authority: bevoegdheid tot het geven van aanwijzingen. NL-HaNA, op. cit., VVKM 195A, loc. cit. 
31. Another reason is that, to my knowledge, no comprehensive organisational overview of the Royal Navy of the 1980s has survived, if one ever existed. Units listed: Jaarboeken KM 1983-1987, passim. NL-HaNA, archiefinventaris 2.13.114, passim. Ibid., archiefinventaris 2.12.56, passim.
32. Special Organisation Units (BOEs): HTK 1983-1984, kamerstuknr. 18169 ondernr. 2 (Defensienota 1984-1993), 135. Jaarboek KM 1984, 14-15, passim. Jaarboek KM 1985, 10-11, passim. In March 1986 the Directorate of Economic Management Royal Navy was augmented with the Centre for Automation of Management Information Systems (Centrum voor Automatisering van Bestuurlijke Informatiesystemen, CABIS). Jaarboek KM 1986, 25. In 1987 CABIS became a BOE. Jaarboek KM 1987, 171-172.  
33. Jaarboek KM 1987, 99
34. The Mine Countermeasures School EGUERMIN (Ecole de Guerre des Mines) in Oostende (BE) was a fully integrated Belgian-Netherlands organisation since 1975. Parrein, De evolutie en toekomst, 27-28.
35. NBCD: nucear, biological, chemical, damage
36. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 34-36