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Naval Command Netherlands 1
Commandement der Zeemacht in Nederland (CZMNED)



Part I: The Fleet (Sea) | Part II: The Fleet (Air) | Part III: Service Support (Land) | Wartime Organisation

Hr.Ms. Dolfijn, Dolfijn class submarine(Dokkum-class minesweepers)Hr.Ms. Zeehond, Dolfijn class submarine(Potvis-class submarines)(Alkmaar-class minehunters)(Dokkum-class minesweepers)(Van Speijk-class frigates)(Zwaardvis-class submarines)Hr.Ms. Onbevreesd headquarters and support ship(Kortenaer-class frigates)(Buyskes-class survey ships)Hr.Ms. Mercuur torpedo tender(Fast combat support ships)(Tromp-class frigates)Hr.Ms. Tydeman survey shipST(Balder-class patrol craft)GESNLTG3 (TG 429.6)MBFLOT2 (TG 429.2)(ST)FREGRON (TG 429.4)CZMNEDSTESK (NLTG) (TG 429.5)MBFLOT1 (TG 429.1)MDOZDSTMBFLOT3 (TG 429.3)
  
Unit Location Peace Strength War Strength
Staff Naval Command Netherlands [a] Den Helder 47/54/34/8 (143)
29/54/36/8 (127)
   
Submarine Service Den Helder ?
?
Group of Escort Ships [b] (Afloat) ?
?
Mine Service Den Helder ?
?

Notes
   
a. Headed by Naval Commander Netherlands (Commandant der Zeemacht in Nederland, CZMNED). Since November 1984 CZMNED was headquartered in the new Maritime Headquarters Netherlands (Maritiem Hoofdkwartier Nederland, MHKNED) in Julianadorp (Den Helder). CZMNED held the NATO command of Commander, Benelux Subarea Channel (COMBENECHAN, also known as Commander, Benelux Channel); thus MHKNED was also HQ COMBENECHAN. In addition, in wartime CZMNED would have operational command over ships and units of the Belgian Navy as Admiral Benelux (Admiraal Benelux, ABNL); part of the Belgian naval staff would be integrated in MHKNED and the Deputy ABNL would be a Belgian flag officer.2 
b. Commander, Group of Escort Ships (Commandant Groep Escorteschepen, CGES) was also Commander of the Squadron (Commandant Eskader, CEKD), in wartime Commander, First Netherlands Task Group (COMNLTG1), see below.3
 
Type-organisation versus Task Organisation

The organisational chart above shows the sea-going part of the Fleet: the Royal Navy's submarines, frigates and mine-countermeasure vessels. Together with the Marine Corps, the Fleet formed the 'business end' of the Royal Navy
   
For logistical and administrative purposes the Fleet was subdivided into five type-oriented groups of operational units, the first three of which are displayed above the dotted line in the chart:
 4 This grouping was known as the "type-organisation", which was designed to maintain and make available the Royal Navy's means to conduct naval operations. For any such operations, be it in peace or war, the Royal Navy would employ the "task organisation" concept. From the type-organisation Naval Commander Netherlands would form temporary organisations tailored to specific missions: task groups (TG). Task groups could be subdivided into task units (TU) and task elements (TE), as needed. This two-stage organisation closely followed NATO doctrine. The Fleet had the NATO designation Task Force 429, call sign TF 429.5
   
In peacetime Naval Command Netherlands operated with four task groups, as shown in the chart below the dotted line:
  • The Squadron (Eskader, EKD), in NATO context known as Netherlands Task Group (NLTG); NATO call sign TG 429.5. In peacetime the Squadron was basically the Netherlands' standing naval force, in principle permanently at sea. The minimum size of the Squadron was one Tromp-class frigate (flagship), four Kortenaer or Van Speijk-class frigates with helicopters embarked, and one fast combat support ship. Each year the Squadron would undertake three sea journeys (winter, spring, autumn), of which at least one longer than six weeks. At sea the Squadron conducted the last phase of working up crews and ships to NATO operational readiness requirements and would take part in several NATO and multinational naval exercises.6 In wartime the Squadron would become the First Netherlands Task Group (NLTG1), for which the Royal Navy used the Dutch designation Eerste Escortegroep (First Escort Group).7  
  • The Frigate Squadron (Fregattensquadron, FREGRON), NATO call sign TG 429.4. The Frigate Squadron handled the first phases of working up ships and crews to exercise-readiness, which phase was concluded with a four-week naval exercise under the auspices of the Royal (UK) Navy's Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) based at Portland, United Kingdom. After this, the ships would go to the Squadron. The Frigate Squadron usually comprised between one and three ships, which could also include fast combat support ships and submarines. The squadron would work up about six ships per year and on average contribute to the operational readiness of seven to ten other ships, including frigates of the Belgian Navy. To prepare for his wartime role Commander, Frigate Squadron (CFREGRON) would, in addition, each year lead a group of frigates during various NATO or multinational naval exercises.8 In wartime the Frigate Squadron would most likely become the Second Netherlands Task Group (NLTG2), in Dutch: Tweede Escortegroep (Second Escort Group).9  
  • Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 1 (Mijnenbestrijdingsflottielje 1, MBFLOT1), NATO call sign TG 429.1. Mine countermeasures (MCM) flotillas would, as needed, be subdivided into task units: per flotilla probably up to three MCM squadrons (Mijnenbestrijdingssquadron, MBRON) and up to six task elements: MCM divisions (Mijnenbestrijdingsdivisie, MBDIV). It appears an MCM squadron in peacetime usually comprised four to six vessels, an MCM division two vessels. MBFLOT1 operated from Den Helder, mainly with Alkmaar-class minehunters.10 
  • Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 3 (Mijnenbestrijdingsflottielje 3, MBFLOT3), NATO call sign TG 429.3. Operated from Vlissingen, mainly with Dokkum-class minesweepers.11 
Type-organisation: Integrated Support Elements 12
For the sake of clarity the previous section shows only ships and naval formations. However, type-organisations also included logistic and other support elements. The organisational chart below shows the rest of the three groups of operational units that made up the sea-going part of the Fleet: 


conlogddgDMCDTC(Triton-type diving tenders)DDGHLDR, DDGAD, DDGRDAM, DDGVLISMDKAZMDSTATGOGA 887 Hr.Ms. ThetisSTAFEKDSTAFFRONA 886 Hr.Ms. Cornelis DrebbelOZDKAZGESMDOZD

  • The Submarine Service (Onderzeedienst, OZD) further included the Submarine Service Barracks (Onderzeedienstkazerne, OZDKAZ) in Den Helder and the accommodation ship A 886 Hr.Ms. Drebbel in Rotterdam. Commander, Submarine Service (Commandant Onderzeedienst, COZD) was also commander of OZDKAZ.  
  • The Group of Escort Ships (Groep Escorteschepen, GES) further included the Squadron Staff (Staf Eskader, STAFEKD), the Frigate Squadron Staff (Staf Fregattensquadron, STAFFRON), and the GES Support Group (GES Ondersteuningsgroep, GOG). The two staffs would command the Squadron and the Frigate Squadron respectively, from one of their frigates. GOG constituted the land-based part of GES, providing operational, technical, materiel-logistic and administrative support.
  • The Mine Service (Mijnendienst, MD) was subdivided into three 'groupings' of units: the sea-going grouping (varende groepering), which has been covered in the previous section; the logistic grouping (logistieke groepering, log); the diving and dismantling grouping (duik- en demonteergroepering, ddg); and the conservation grouping (conservatiegroepering, con). The logistic grouping comprised the Mine Service Barracks (Mijnendienstkazerne, MDKAZ) in Den Helder and the Mine Service Station (Mijnendienststation, MDSTAT) in Vlissingen. MDKAZ provided logistic support to all units under the logistic (sub)authority of Commander, Mine Service (Commandant Mijnendienst, CMD), who was also barracks commander. The diving and dismantling grouping comprised four diving and dismantling groups: one based in Den Helder (DDGHLDR) at MDKAZ, one in Amsterdam (DDGAD), one in Rotterdam (DDGRDAM), and one in Vlissingen (DDGVLIS); the three Triton type diving tenders; the Diving Technical Centre (Duiktechnisch Centrum, DTC) in Den Oever; the Diving Medical Centre (Duikmedisch Centrum, DMC) in Den Helder; and the Diving and Dismantling School (Duik- en Demonteerschool, DDS) on accommodation ship A 887 Hr.Ms. Thetis in Den Oever. In peacetime the divers were mainly occupied with periodical underwater maintenance work and the dismantling of unexploded ordnance from World War II. The conservation grouping maintained Mine Service and other vessels in reserve or scheduled to be sold off; see further below.12 
     
Operations and Readiness

The Fleet, or Task Force 429, was unlikely to ever operate as a single force in wartime as its subordinate task groups, including those to be formed on mobilisation (NLTG3/TG 429.6 and MBFLOT2/TG 429.2) were earmarked to operate under NATO commands: Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) and Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN), or their subcommands; see further under Wartime Organisation
   
The ships of the Group of Escort Ships were in principle permanently in service. Kortenaer-class frigates would be taken in for a five-month maintenance period every three years. The other ships of the Group would each spend four months in maintenance every two years.
Of the mine countermeasure vessels five out of the eleven operational Dokkum-class minesweepers were kept in reserve as a cost-cutting measure, maintained by the conservation grouping of the Mine Service, with individual vessels periodically rotating in and out of service.13
   
Commander, Mine Service (Commandant Mijnendienst, CMD) had no operational command over his ships; this was held by Naval Commander Netherlands who would delegate operational command to MCM flotilla commanders. That might include patrol boats but he would retain, at least in peacetime, operational command of the hydrographic ships. The latter surveyed the seafloor, mainly for mine countermeasures operations, anti-submarine warfare operations and wartime convoy routes (sea lines of communication, SLOC).14
   
The five operational submarines would be in maintenance for six months every two and a half years. The decommissioned submarine S 808 Hr.Ms. Dolfijn, used for training purposes, was deleted from the reserve in February 1985. Submarines were not part of a task group though they could of course operate in support of one. They probably operated individually most of the time. In peacetime the submarines fell under operational control of Naval Commander Netherlands, with operational command held by Commander, Submarine Service. The mission of the Submarine Service was threefold:
  • Prepare for war operations by taking part in national and NATO exercises;
  • Provide the opportunity for surface units, aircraft and other submarines, predominantly from the Royal Navy and the Royal (UK) Navy, to realistically exercise anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations;
  • Execute secret national or NATO reconnaissance, surveillance and intelligence missions.   
The Submarine Service worked closely with its British counterpart and frequently operated from Faslane (Naval Base Clyde) in Scotland, under operational command of the British Flag Officer Submarines (FOSM).15 
   
NATO Standing Naval Forces


The Royal Navy was a regular participant in NATO's two permanent multinational, integrated naval squadrons: Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT) and Standing Naval Force Channel (STANAVFORCHAN). These were the Immediate Reaction Forces of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) and Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) respectively, meant to provide a quick military response to emerging crises as well as providing a permanent display of Allied solidarity, vigilance and military integration (see also NATO Commands, Multinational Forces). The standard contribution of the Royal Navy was one frigate from the Group of Escort Ships to STANAVFORLANT, and two mine countermeasure vessels, one from each Mine Countermeasures Flotilla, to STANAVFORCHAN.16
 

Part I: The Fleet (Sea) | Part II: The Fleet (Air) | Part III: Service Support (Land) | Wartime Organisation

MVKKMVKVVGSQ 860VGSQ 7VGSQ 321VGSQ 320(Niet in een groep ingedeelde eenheden)VGSQ 2STHELIGRPMARPATVLIGRPST

Unit Main Equipment Location Peace Strength War Strength
Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group
Staff Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group [a]     Valkenburg ?
?
Aircraft Squadron 2 [b] Lockheed P-3C Orion Valkenburg ?
?
Aircraft Squadron 320 [c] Lockheed P-3C Orion Valkenburg ?
?
Aircraft Squadron 321 [c] Lockheed P-3C Orion Valkenburg ?
?
Naval Air Station Valkenburg [a] [d]     Valkenburg ?
?
   
Helicopter Group [e]
Staff Helicopter Group [f]     Den Helder ?
?
Aircraft Squadron 7 [g] Westland Lynx Mk 25 Den Helder ?
?
Aircraft Squadron 860 [h] Westland Lynx Mk 27, Mk 81 Den Helder ?
?
Naval Air Station De Kooy [f] [i]     Den Helder ?
?
   
(Non-assigned units) [j]                

Notes
   
a. Commander, Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group (Commandant Groep Maritieme Patrouillevliegtuigen, CMARPATVLIGRP) was also Commander Naval Air Station Valkenburg (Commandant Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg, CMVKV).17
b. Aircraft Squadron 2 (Vliegtuigsquadron 2, VGSQ 2) was the training squadron, possibly to be disbanded in wartime.18
c. Aircraft Squadron 320 (Vliegtuigsquadron 320, VGSQ 320) and Aircraft Squadron 321 (VGSQ 321) were the operational anti-submarine warfare (ASW) squadrons. It appears the thirteen P-3C Orions were were owned and maintained by VGSQ 320, with aircraft being detached to VGSQ 2 for training sorties and to VGSQ 321 for operational sorties. Up to December 1984 VGSQ 321 had been operating with six Breguet BR.1150 Atlantic (SP-13A) maritime patrol aircraft, which were taken out of service and sold back to France in 1985. As of 18 October 1985 one P-3C Orion, nr. 312, was permanently stationed on NATO Naval Air Station Keflavik, Iceland, with rotating crew and maintenance team. There it primarily conducted NATO surveillance and intelligence operations under US Navy operational command, in close cooperation with US Navy Patrol Squadron Keflavik (PATRONKEF). These operations were primarily aimed at monitoring and tracking Soviet nuclear submarines. Orion nr. 312 would be operated alternately by crews from VGSQ 320 and VGSQ 321, incidentally by a crew from VGSQ 2. From Naval Air Station Valkenburg P-3C Orions regularly conducted surveillance operations against Soviet fleet elements in the North Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, which operations were characterised as "very aggressive intelligence gathering" at Northwood Headquarters (UK). At Valkenburg one P-3C Orion was permanently on stand-by for search and rescue missions (SAR, in Dutch naval terminology: Opsporings- en Reddingsdienst, OSRD).19 
d. Naval Air Station Valkenburg (Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg, MVKV) was formally not part of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group. In 1985 the new "Sirius" complex became operational, housing the group's Operational Flight Trainer (OFT), Operational Tactical Trainer (OTT) and Mission Support Centre (MSC). "Sirius" also housed the Noise Analysis Centre (Geruisanalysecentrum, GAC). The GAC, established in 1980, handled the in-depth analysis and cataloguing of underwater acoustic data collected by aircraft, ships and submarines of the Royal Navy, maintaining a database of acoustic signatures from both friendly and unfriendly vessels. The GAC was an element of the Naval Staff which operated under control of the Naval Intelligence Service (Marineinlichtingendienst, MARID).20 For Marine Corps personnel stationed here, see Marine Corps, Part II.
e. In the Royal Navy the Groep Helikopters was sometimes referred to as Groep Hefschroefvliegtuigen (Rotary-Wing Aircraft Group).21
f. Commander Helicopter Group (Commandant Groep Helikopters, CHELIGRP) was also Commander Naval Air Station De Kooy (Commandant Marinevliegkamp De Kooy, CMVKV).22
g. Aircraft Squadron 7 (Vliegtuigsquadron 7, VGSQ 7) was the training and search and rescue (SAR) squadron, but in addition performed a variety of other tasks. The squadron operated with five Westland Lynx Mk 25 (UH-14A) helicopters from Naval Air Station De Kooy and was therefore sometimes referred to as the shore helicopter squadron (squadron walhelikopters). One helicopter was permanently on stand-by for SAR missions. The squadron performed transport and liaison tasks and was available for disaster relief. From 1983 helicopters from VGSQ 7 were regularly used for (photo) intelligence-gathering sorties against Soviet and other Warsaw Pact fleet elements passing through the North Sea. The squadron was probably also responsible for providing tactical transport for the Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Mariniers, BBE-M) and the Amphibious Section of the Marine Corps (Amfibische Sectie, AMFSIE) during (exercises for) counterterrorism operations, notably concerning oil and gas installations (oil platforms) in the North Sea. From the mid-1980s the Armed Forces Special Assistance Unit (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Krijgsmacht, BBE-K) would also participate in such exercises, with a Lynx helicopter serving as a platform for two snipers/precision shooters.23
h. Aircraft Squadron 860 (Vliegtuigsquadron 860, VGSQ 860) was the operational ASW squadron, from which helicopters with crew and maintenance personnel (flight units, vluchteenheden) would be detached to the frigates and fast combat support ships of the Fleet. The squadron operated nine Westland Lynx Mk 27 (SH-14B) and eight Mk 81 (SH-14C) helicopters. Their primary role was anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations, with reconnaissance (Over The Horizon Targeting, OTHT) and general utility work (transport, liaison) as secondary roles. In ASW operations a helicopter would primarily function as an integrated part of the sensor, weapon and command system of the ship on which it was stationed, usually working closely with an 'on task' P-3C Orion of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.24 However, to effectively support the Fleet in ASW operations the squadron was seriously short in sonar-equipped helicopters; see Royal Navy, Aircraft, note d 
i. Naval Air Station De Kooy (Marinevliegkamp De Kooy, MVKK) was formally not part of the Helicopter Group. For Marine Corps personnel stationed here, see Marine Corps, Part II.
j. Units (ships or aircraft) that were, temporarily or permanently, not assigned to one of the five aforelisted type-organisation groups.25
   
The Naval Aviation Service

The chart above displays the Fleet's two remaining type-oriented groups of operational units: the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group (Groep Maritieme Patrouillevliegtuigen, MARPATVLIGRP) and the Helicopter Group (Groep Helikopters, HELIGRP). Together these formed the Naval Aviation Service (Marineluchtvaartdienst, MLD). Since 1977 the MLD was no longer a command level, both groups falling directly under Naval Commander Netherlands as shown.26
   
Remarkable is the rather serious shortage in dipping sonars for the already modestly sized fleet of onboard helicopters: as noted, since 1984 there were probably only eight sonar-equipped helicopters to support eighteen frigates in ASW operations. To make matters worse, from about 1980 the deployability of the Royal Navy's Lynx helicopters had been suffering from structural maintenance problems. This otherwise excellent helicopter needed more maintenance and repair than expected, and the fact that there were three different types in use did not help. In 1984 deployability was at 40 percent, on average, where 70 percent was the minimum requirement. Measures were taken, but only in 1987 the situation was beginning to improve.27  
   
With the P-3C Orion patrol aircraft the MLD had acquired a very capable and sophisticated ASW and surveillance platform, but in later years maintenance problems would come to light here as well. The causes may have been different, but it appears that, not unlike the Royal Army, the Royal Navy struggled, at least when it came to its aircraft, to meet the maintenance requirements of new high-tech equipment.28   


Part I: The Fleet (Sea)Part II: The Fleet (Air) | Part III: Service Support (Land) 52Wartime Organisation

KMBMBKMKVLISMKWDMKERFMKADMKDHMMUSCMMVLISCMMRDAMCMMHLDRCMMAD

Unit Location Peace Strength War Strength
Maritime Resources Command Den Helder [a] Den Helder ± (700)
± (700)?
Maritime Resources Command Amsterdam [b] [c] Amsterdam ?
?
Maritime Resources Command Rotterdam [d] [e] Rotterdam ?
?
Maritime Resources Command Vlissingen [f] [g] Vlissingen ?
?
   
Naval Barracks Erfprins [h] Den Helder ?
?
Naval Barracks Willemsoord [i] Den Helder ?
?
Naval Barracks Amsterdam [c] [j] Amsterdam ?
?
Naval Barracks Den Haag [k] Den Haag (69)
± (69)?
Naval Barracks Vlissingen [g] [l] Vlissingen ?
?
   
Naval Security Corps [m] Den Helder (320)
(320)?
Naval Fire Service Corps [n] Den Helder (108)
(108)?
   
Naval Museum Den Helder 1/3/5 (9)
1/3/5 (9)?

Notes
   
a. Maritime Resources Command Den Helder (Commandement Maritieme Middelen Den Helder, CMMHLDR): regional, primarily logistic command tasked with providing harbour facilities, harbour security, and operational, logistical and materiel support to Royal Navy units and installations present in the region.29 52 Wartime responsibilities would, in addition, include operating a maritime investigation service, maritime harbour defence, mobilisation of the available naval potential, direction of merchant sea traffic, providing defensive equipment to merchant vessels and, if necessary, dispersing, evacuating or destroying naval assets.30 The region comprised the northern part of the province of North Holland, the northern part of the IJsselmeer, the Wadden Islands and the provinces of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.31 The command was organised into a directorate, a small staff and four divisions: Harbour Service; Operations, which included the Den Helder division of the Naval Security Corps; Logistic Support, which included the Central Sickbay (Centrale Ziekenboeg, CZB); and Materiel, including the Den Helder (Nieuwe Haven en Rijkswerf) section of the Naval Fire Service Corps. In 1986 peacetime strength was ± 400 military and ± 300 civilian personnel.32 Until 3 April 1984 the command was known as Maritime Resources Command Texel.33
b. Maritime Resources Command Amsterdam (Commandement Maritieme Middelen Amsterdam, CMMAD): regional command, see note a. The region comprised the southern part of the province of North Holland, the southern part of the IJsselmeer, Flevoland, the larger parts of the provinces of Utrecht and Gelderland, and the province of Overijssel.31 The command included a Logistic Service.34 Until 3 April 1984 the command was known as Maritime Resources Command IJmond.33
c. Commander, Maritime Resources Amsterdam (Commandant Maritieme Middelen Amsterdam, CMMAD) was also commander of Naval Barracks Amsterdam.35
d. Maritime Resources Command Rotterdam (Commandement Maritieme Middelen Rotterdam, CMMRDAM): regional command, see note a. The region comprised the province of South Holland and the smaller, southern parts of the provinces of Utrecht and Gelderland.31 Until 3 April 1984 the command was known as Maritime Resources Command Rijnmond.33
e. Commander, Maritime Resources Rotterdam (Commandant Maritieme Middelen Rotterdam, CMMRDAM) was a colonel of the marines who was also commander of Van Ghent Barracks.36
f. Maritime Resources Command Vlissingen (Commandement Maritieme Middelen Vlissingen, CMMVLIS): regional command, see note a. The region comprised the provinces of Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg.31 Until 3 April 1984 the command was known as Maritime Resources Command Schelde.33
g. Commander, Maritime Resources Vlissingen (Commandant Maritieme Middelen Vlissingen, CMMVLIS) was also commander of Naval Barracks Vlissingen.37
h. Naval Barracks Erfprins (Marinekazerne Erfprins, MKERF) housed the Weapon Engineering School (Wapentechnische School) and the Management and Education Theory School (School voor Bedrijfsvoering en Onderwijskunde).38 52
i. Naval Barracks Willemsoord (Marinekazerne Willemsoord, MKWD) primarily served to accommodate and feed Royal Navy personnel in the Den Helder region. MKWD also provided training, sporting and other facilities to various Royal Navy schools and services, and handled materiel supplies.39 52 For Marine Corps personnel stationed here, see Marine Corps, Part II
j. Naval Barracks Amsterdam (Marinekazerne Amsterdam, MKAD) provided accommodation and logistical facilities for Maritime Resources Command Amsterdam.34 For Marine Corps personnel stationed here, see Marine Corps, Part II.
k. Naval Barracks Den Haag (Marinekazerne Den Haag, MKDH) provided mainly administrative, transport and medical support for Royal Navy personnel in the Den Haag region, of whom more than ninety percent worked in the Ministry of Defence or the Naval Staff. In 1985 personnel strength was 69 men, but the administrative personnel strength, which included the aforementioned Royal Navy personnel, was 814 men.40 For Marine Corps personnel stationed here, see Marine Corps, Part II.
l. Naval Barracks Vlissingen (Marinekazerne Vlissingen, MKVLIS) provided logistic support to Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 3, and housed the Mine Service Station (Mijnendienststation, MDSTAT) and Diving and Dismantling Team Vlissingen (Duik- en Demonteerploeg Vlissingen, DDGVLIS), both of which were under functional command of Commander, Mine Service. In addition the barracks accommodated crews of ships being completed or in maintenance at the Koninklijke Maatschappij De Schelde shipyard.41 52 For Marine Corps personnel stationed here, see Marine Corps, Part II.
m. The Naval Security Corps (Marinebewakingskorps, MBK) handled personnel security and guarded naval harbours, bases and installations in the Netherlands. The MBK almost exclusively consisted of civilian personnel; but members were required to have previous military experience, either professionally or through conscription. Legally they were unsalaried civil servants of the State Police (onbezoldigd ambtenaar van het Korps Rijkspolitie), which gave them investigative powers (opsporingsbevoegdheid). In 1985 the corps was led by a lieutenant-colonel of the marines. MBK detachments worked closely with the regional bureaus of the Naval Intelligence Service (Marineinlichtingendienst, MARID). Members were armed with a pistol, probably FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm.42 In wartime object and area security would be enhanced by Marine Corps Security Detachments, see Marine Corps, Part III.
n. The Naval Fire Service Corps (Korps Marinebrandweer, KMB) comprised a headquarters and one section (Sectie Nieuwe Haven en Rijkswerf) at the naval base in Den Helder (56 men), one section (Sectie Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg) at Naval Air Station Valkenburg (34 men) and one section (Sectie Marinevliegkamp De Kooy) at Naval Air Station De Kooy (18 men). Personnel were non-military, in service with the Ministry of Defence. Firefighting materiel included some thirty vehicles, amongst which three MAC 06-S crash tenders at Valkenburg and two at De Kooy.43
o. The Naval Museum (Marinemuseum, MMUS) was staffed by military Royal Navy personnel.44

Wartime Organisation 45

As we have seen above, in peacetime the Royal Navy operated with four naval task groups: two escort groups and two mine countermeasures flotillas. On NATO Simple Alert two additional task groups would be formed, one in each category: the Third Escort Group (NLTG3/TG 429.6) and Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 2 (MBFLOT2/TG 429.2). The Squadron (Eskader, EKD) would become the First Escort Group (NLTG1/TG 429.5), whilst the Frigate Squadron (Fregattensquadron, FREGRON) would most likely become the Second Escort Group (NLTG2/TG 429.4). The organisational chart below displays the resulting war organisation of six naval task groups, the commands under which they would operate and their likely configuration. For a wider context, see Royal Navy, Wartime Organisation.46


3 x Dokkum-class minesweeper4 x Dokkum-class minesweeper2 x Alkmaar-class minehunter3 x Alkmaar-class minehunter1 x Tromp-class frigate1 x Poolster-class fast combat support ship1 x Poolster-class fast combat support ship1 x Tromp-class frigate2 x Kortenaer-class frigate2 x Van Speijk-class frigate2 x Van Speijk-class frigate4 x Kortenaer-class frigate4 x Kortenaer-class frigate2 x Van Speijk-class frigate3 x Alkmaar-class minehunter4 x Dokkum-class minesweeperMBFLOT1/TG 429.1MBFLOT3/TG 429.3MBFLOT2/TG 429.2NLTG2/TG 429.4NLTG1 / TG 429.5NLTG3/TG 429.6Commandement der Zeemacht in Nederland(Staf) Commandant der Zeemacht in Nederland / Admiraal BeneluxHQ Commander-in-Chief ChannelHQ Supreme Allied Commander AtlanticAllied Command ChannelAllied Command Atlantic

The six task groups as shown above would not be immediately available: mobilised personnel would need to be integrated, ships would start accelerated working-up programs, and some ships would be in maintenance or repair. Five Dokkum-class minesweepers, possibly also some other smaller vessels, would first need to be taken out of conservation. In the first stage operationally ready ships would probably be reassigned between task groups in order to put at least one escort group (likely NLTG1) and one mine countermeasures group (likely MBFLOT2) out to sea whilst, in second line, the working-up and formation of the other task groups would be taken in hand.

Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT)

The First and Second Escort Groups (NLTG1 and NLTG2) would operate under ACLANT in the northern and eastern parts of the Atlantic Ocean, with operational command probably delegated to Eastern Atlantic Command (EASTLANT), headquartered in Northwood (UK). Their primary mission would be to protect and keep open the vital sea lines of communication (SLOC) along which supplies and reinforcements from the American continent would be shipped to the Central Front in Europe.47 The prescribed composition of an Atlantic escort group was as follows:
  • One Tromp-class frigate for command (flagship), tactical air control, medium range air defence and anti-ship warfare;
  • Six frigates for medium range anti-submarine warfare and anti-ship warfare;
  • One fast combat support ship for organic logistic support;
  • Eight onboard helicopters for anti-submarine warfare in a radius of up to thirty nautical miles around the group, and Over The Horizon Targeting (OTHT) for anti-ship warfare. Given the shortage in helicopters this number would be significantly lower, whilst the shortage in dipping sonars would significantly reduce their anti-submarine warfare capabilities; see Royal Navy, Part III: Aircraft, note d.
  • Not organic to the group: one P-3C Orion of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group 'on task' for maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare and OTHT.
For short range self-defence each frigate had anti-submarine torpedo's and air defence systems. The Goalkeeper close-in weapon system (CWIS) was still under development however, so close-in air defence was very limited.

Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN)

The Third Escort Group (NLTG3) and Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 2 (MBFLOT2) would operate in the Channel and the North Sea under ACCHAN. Their primary mission was anti-submarine warfare and anti-mine warfare respectively, in protection of Allied shipping in the area. Again the aim was to enable an uninterrupted flow of supplies and reinforcements to the Central Front. The prescribed composition of the North Sea/Channel escort group, NLTG3, was originally five frigates but, as it was, only four would be available.48 For its anti-submarine warfare role the group would, like NLTG1 and NLTG2, operate with onboard helicopters and have a P-3C Orion 'on task'. CINCHAN's anti-submarine warfare operations would probably concentrate on the approaches to his area of responsibility, in particular the deeper, western Channel approaches, whilst his anti-mine warfare operations would focus on a limited number of important shipping lanes and concentration areas.

Naval Command Netherlands/Admiral Benelux (CZMNED/ABNL) (Benelux Subarea Channel Command, BENECHAN)

Mine Countermeasures Flotillas 1 and 3 (MBFLOT1 and MBFLOT3) would operate under Naval Commander Netherlands/Admiral Benelux. Their mission would be to keep the coastal shipping routes and territorial waters clear of mines, in particular the approaches to the Scheldt (Antwerp), Rijnmond (Rotterdam), IJmond (Amsterdam), Den Helder and Delfzijl. These included the logistic bases for naval operations (the naval base at Den Helder and the Mine Service Station in Vlissingen; also to be mentioned here are the Belgian naval bases at Zeebrugge and Oostende). Moreover, these approaches included the receiving ends of vital transatlantic SLOC: in particular the major harbour areas of Antwerp and Rotterdam. 
   
Keeping the territorial waters clear of mines was a national responsibility, which the Netherlands and Belgium would assume jointly in wartime.
Hatted as Admiral Benelux, Naval Commander Netherlands would receive operational command over Belgian naval forces not assigned to SACLANT or CINCHAN. These forces would mainly comprise mine countermeasures vessels, of which the Belgian Navy had twenty-nine; these were mostly coastal and inshore minesweepers, in peacetime organised into four flotillas. The four small but well-armed Wielingen-class frigates of the Belgian Navy would operate under CINCHAN, where they would perhaps be used to beef up NLTG3. It will be noted that Admiral Benelux also held the NATO Benelux Subarea Channel Command (BENECHAN); as such he was a subcommander of CINCHAN. It would appear this construction was devised to facilitate coordination between NATO and national responsibilities.49  
   
A concluding remark on the composition of the task groups as shown in the organisational chart above: it should be noted that, beyond the prescribed composition of the two Atlantic escort groups given above, the exact composition of the six task groups is uncertain. In the chart, ship types have been distributed more or less evenly to achieve balanced capabilities; especially the composition of the mine countermeasure flotillas is merely an assumption. In reality the available ships would be assigned and reassigned as operationally required.
   
The remaining naval forces of Naval Commander Netherlands/Admiral Benelux would likewise be distributed between his own command and ACLANT and ACCHAN: the
submarines, the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group, the Helicopter Group and the activated Administrative Escorts and investigation service. Their war assignments are described below. 

Submarines

The submarines would on NATO Simple Alert be placed under operational authority of SACLANT, with operational command probably delegated to Submarine Forces Command Eastern Atlantic Area (SUBEASTLANT), headquartered in Northwood (UK). Their war base would be Naval Base Clyde in Faslane, Scotland (UK), from where they would deploy to the Atlantic approaches of the Soviet Northern Fleet and Baltic Fleet: the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. Prior to open hostilities the submarines would localise and report on enemy units. Once war would have broken out they were to prevent the aforementioned fleets from breaking through to the Atlantic Ocean, thus contributing to the protection of the transatlantic SLOC. Further possible missions included laying mines, reconnaissance and landing intelligence agents. 

Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group

The wartime mission of the P-3C Orions would comprise surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, and Over The Horizon Targeting (OTHT) for Allied surface combatants. Aircraft Squadron 320 would be assigned to ACLANT and mainly operate from RAF Machrihanish (UK). Its operational area would be the eastern Atlantic Ocean; operational command would probably be delegated to Maritime Air Command Eastern Atlantic Area (AIREASTLANT), headquartered in Northwood (UK). Aircraft Squadron 321 would be assigned to ACCHAN and mainly operate from RAF St. Mawgan (UK). Its operational area would be the western Channel approaches; operational command would probably be delegated to Allied Maritime Air Force Channel Command, headquartered in Northwood (UK). A number of Orions would continue to operate from Naval Air Station Valkenburg, probably in support of  CZMNED/ABNL/COMBENECHAN. These aircraft, possibly operated by Aircraft Squadron 2, would be placed under operational authority of SACLANT; operational or executive command would probably remain with Commander, Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.

Helicopter Group

The helicopters of Aircraft Squadron 860 would operate from the frigates and fast combat support ships of the three escort groups (NLTG1, 2 and 3), primarily for anti-submarine warfare; also for reconnaissance (OTHT) and general utility work (transport, liaison). Aircraft Squadron 7 would be assigned to Admiral Benelux (ABNL) for liaison and search-and-rescue (SAR) tasks along the Dutch and Belgian coast and, we assume, remain available for BBE operations (see Part II, The Fleet (Air), note g.) 50 

Administrative Escorts

A number of vessels would be depoyed as 'administrative escorts' under operational command of Naval Commander Netherlands (CZMNED). Their task would be to escort Allied convoys and to secure the territorial and coastal waters and the maritime approaches and harbours. Firstly the three survey ships of the Hydrographic Service and the three Balder-class patrol boats would be deployed in this role, whilst additional forces would be mobilised, equipped and worked-up.51 For this a number of private and government vessels would be requisitioned. These vessels would be armed to be able to counter subversive enemy actions and if necessary enforce the boarding of ships for investigation (see the next section below). Manned by military personnel they would patrol the coastal and territorial waters, but they might also be deployed to the area north of the Netherlands part of the North Sea. For patrol duties along the Netherlands coast the Ministry of Transport and Water Management (Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat) would requisition up to sixteen seagoing fishing vessels for the Royal Navy. These were to counter sea-borne subversive actions and protect fishery.
   
CZMNED would probably partly act in his capacity as Commander, Benelux Subarea Channel (COMBENECHAN) here, as the survey ships would be allocated to CINCHAN on NATO Simple Alert. < 

Investigation Service and Pilotage Service

To secure the Netherlands seaports against enemy infiltration or subversive actions an investigation service (onderzoekingsdienst) would be activated. This service would comprise Royal Navy personnel, including appointed investigation officers, and personnel and vessels of the Pilotage Service (Loodsdienst). Investigation teams would board and investigate suspect ships before or upon entering a harbour. The teams would operate under operational command of the regional Commanders of Maritime Resources (Commandanten Maritieme Middelen, CMM) (see Part III: Service Support (Land)). The pilot vessels would be elevated to the status of warship and would be incorporated in the CMM organisations, Pilotage Service personnel would be incorporated in the defence organisation. Eight pilot vessels would be deployed in this role, as follows: one in Delfzijl and one in Den Helder (CMM Den Helder); one in Amsterdam and IJmuiden (CMM Amsterdam); three in Rotterdam and Hoek van Holland (CMM Rotterdam); and two in Vlissingen (CMM Vlissingen).
   
The remainder of the Pilotage Service, in peacetime falling under the Ministry of Transport and Water Management (Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat), would be militarised as well: personnel and materiel would be placed under the authority of the Minister of Defence.       

_________________________________________________
   
1. Organisation: NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 8434, Doelstellingen, taken en organisatie commandement der zeemacht in Nederland d.d. 13 november 1979, Bijlage (organisatieschema). NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, NDPP Concept krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1984-1993 d.d. maart 1983, Deel I, Hoofdstuk III. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, knipsel "DES geïntegreerd", 1984. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, Voorstel bemanningslijst groep escorteschepen d.d. 16 januari 1984, Bijlage 1, Bijlage 3. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657, concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195A (VVKM 195A) inzake bestuur en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 3-3, 3-4. Ibid., concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195B (VVKM 195B) inzake de opdracht, taken en organisatie van de zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 1/2-4 t/m 1/2-7, 1/2-10. HTK 1983-1984, kamerstuknr. 18169 ondernr. 2 (Defensienota 1984-1993), 87. Jaarboek KM 1987, 177. Jaarboek KM 1988, 155.
2. Maritime Headquarters Netherlands: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 28. Jaarboek KM 1984, 129, 154. Jaarboek KM 1985, 92. The new headquarters mainly comprised a completely refitted former Air Force bunker. Jensen en Platje, De MARID, 156. Before 1984 CZMNED had his peacetime headquarters in the "commandementsgebouw", also known as "Het Paleis" ("The Palace") in Den Helder, and his war headquarters in Koudekerke on the island of Walcheren, Zeeland. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, loc. cit. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Typechefschap d.d. 17 april 1980. Admiral Benelux: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 27, 29, 35. Parrein, De evolutie en toekomst, Deel 1.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981, 5, 7, 10. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6040, Voorstel wijziging BL 5101/STAFEKD d.d. 23 juni 1982, Bijlage A. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, op. cit., Bijlage 1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 9575, BL 5101 STAFEKD d.d. 12 maart 1984.
4. It should be noted that the Royal Navy used the word 'operational' differently from the Royal Army. In the Royal Navy 'operational units' were units that would take part in naval or amphibious operations; a logistic support or training unit, though operational, was not classed as an 'operational unit'.
5. Type organisation and task organisation: see footnote 1. The Fleet/Task Force 429: this means that Naval Commander Netherlands was, in addition to the nomenclature listed in note a, also known as Commander, Task Force 429 (CTF 429). To further muddy the waters, this NATO designation was apparently changed into Admiral Netherlands Fleet in 1984. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 2119, Aanvullingsblad voor de Koninklijke Marine nr. 5 op Task Organization Call Sign Book ACP 112(B) d.d. 19 juli 1984. A summary may be in order: Naval Commander Netherlands (Commandant der Zeemacht in Nederland, CZMNED) = Commander, Task Force 429 (CTF 429) = Admiral Netherlands Fleet = Admiral Benelux (Admiraal Benelux, ABNL) = Commander, Benelux Subarea Channel (COMBENECHAN). 
6. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 64, 84. HTK 1983-1984, op. cit., 90. Composition of the Squadron: for example, during its 1985 winter journey to the Mediterranean Sea, the Squadron was composed of Tromp-class frigate F 801 Hr.Ms. Tromp (flagship); Kortenaer-class frigates F 808 Hr.Ms. Callenburgh, F 809 Hr.Ms Van Kinsbergen and F 811 Hr.Ms. Piet Heyn; Van Speijk-class frigates F 803 Hr.Ms. Van Galen and F 814 Hr.Ms. Isaac Sweers; fast combat support ship A 832 Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis; and four embarked Lynx helicopters. During 1985 the Squadron took part in three NATO exercises and two multinational exercises. Jaarboek KM 1985, 95-96.
7. It will be noted that the Squadron was known under a somewhat bewildering number of designations: Eskader (Dutch, peacetime), Eerste Escortegroep (Dutch, wartime), Netherlands Task Group (NATO, peacetime), First Netherlands Task Group (NATO, wartime), Task Group 429.5 (NATO, peace and wartime). Moore, Jane's Fighting Ships 1985-86 adds to the variety with the designation Anti-Submarine Warfare Group I. Moore, op. cit., 348.    
8. Jaarboek KM 1984, 23, 167-168. Jaarboek KM 1985, 101-102. Jaarboek KM 1986, 85-87.
9. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981, 7. Ibid., Commentaar op S 155.406/145939 d.d. 2 februari 1981. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Reorganisatie groep escorteschepen d.d. 14 april 1983, Bijlage A. 
10. In 1984 MBLOT1 was composed of MBRON11 with seven Alkmaar-class minehunters, and MDIV141 with Dokkum-class minehunter M 842 Hr.Ms. Veere (decommissioned on 19 October 1984) and Dokkum-class diving tender M 820 Hr.Ms. Woerden. Jaarboek KM 1984, 196, 211. Jaarboek KM 1985 does not report subdivisions of the flotilla. Throughout 1985 MBFLOT1 operated with all operational Alkmaar-class minehunters, comprising between six and eight minehunters; also assigned for the larger part of the year was the Dokkum-class diving tender M 820 Hr.Ms. Woerden. Jaarboek KM 1985, 123-124.
11. In 1985 MBFLOT3 was composed of MBRON31 with Alkmaar-class minehunters M 852 Hr.Ms. Dordrecht and M 855 Hr.Ms. Scheveningen; MBRON32 with Dokkum-class minesweepers M 809 Hr.Ms. Naaldwijk, M 810 Hr.Ms. Abcoude, M 812 Hr.Ms. Drachten, M 813 Hr.Ms. Ommen, M 823 Hr.Ms. Naarden and M 830 Hr.Ms. Sittard; MBDIV341 with Dokkum-class diving tender M 806 Hr.Ms. Roermond. 
12. For this section, see footnote 1. In addition: COZD/COZKAZ and CMD/CMDKAZ: Jaarboek KM 1984, 331. Jaarboek 1985, cf. 123 and 133. Diving and dismantling groups: NL-HaNA, archiefinventaris 2.13.114, 202, 203. Jaarboek KM 1984, 227. Jaarboek KM 1985, 134. Some of these groups are sometimes referred to as teams rather than groups (duik- en demonteerploeg), see for example Jaarboek KM 1985, 132. It is unclear whether this represents a difference in organisation. DDGRDAM was perhaps stationed on A 886 Hr.Ms. Drebbel, DDGAD probably at Naval Barracks Amsterdam. It should be noted that there is a margin of uncertainty about the composition of this grouping: in the 1983 NDPP concept krijgsmachtdeelplan (see footnote 1) there is half a sentence missing between page 30 and 31 where the group's constituting elements are summed up. The diving and dismantling groups and the diving tenders are not mentioned, but on linguistic grounds I believe these elements were meant to be included. Conservation grouping: apart from five Dokkum-class minesweepers in reserve the grouping in 1985 probably maintained decommissioned ships such as Onversaagd-class headquarters and support ship A 885 Hr.Ms. Onbevreesd, Dokkum-class vessel M 801 Hr.Ms. Dokkum, Dokkum-class minehunters M 818 Hr.MS Drunen, M 828 Hr.Ms. Staphorst and M 842 Hr.Ms. Veere; probably also any remaining Balder-class patrol boats, old Wolf-class frigates and Van Straelen-class minesweepers that would all be sold off within a few years. Cf. Jaarboek KM 1984, 325-330 (In dienst zijnde eenheden in 1984); Van Amstel, De schepen, passim; and Royal Navy, List of Ships
13. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 62. Jaarboek KM 1984, 325-330 (In dienst zijnde eenheden in 1984). Dokkum class minesweepers in reserve: HTK 1983-1984, op. cit., 89, 188. Jaarboek KM 1986, 125. The ones in service in 1985 are listed in footnote 11 and shown in the organisational chart at the top of this page. There the ones in reserve in 1985 are shown as mobilisable units. Cost-cutting measure: Schoonoord, Pugno, 272.
14. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31, 57-58. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981, 3. 
15. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 66. Secret submarine intelligence missions: See also Jaime Karremann, In het diepste geheim. Spionage-operaties van Nederlandse onderzeeboten van 1968 tot 1991 (Amsterdam: Marineschepen.nl, 2017). English edition: In Deepest Secrecy: Dutch Submarine Espionage Operations from 1968 to 1991).
16. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 61, 64-65, 71. Participants in STANAVFORLANT in 1985: Kortenaer-class frigates F 823 Hr.Ms. Philips van Almonde (up to January), F 825 Hr.Ms. Jan van Brakel (January-June), F 826 Hr.Ms. Pieter Florisz (June-end of November). Jaarboek KM 1985, 21, 109-111. Participants in STANAVFORCHAN in 1985: Dokkum-class minesweepers M 813 Hr.Ms. Ommen and M 830 Hr.Ms. Sittard (up to June), Alkmaar-class minehunters M 851 Hr.Ms. Delfzijl (May-November), and M 853 Hr.Ms. Haarlem (November-December). During September the Alkmaar-class minehunter M 856 Hr.Ms. Maassluis and the Dokkum-class minesweepers M 809 Hr.Ms. Naaldwijk and M 823 Hr.Ms. Naarden were added to STANAVFORCHAN for the NATO exercise Ocean Safari '85. Jaarboek KM 1985, 21-22, 124-126, 129-130.
17. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31. Jaarboek KM 1985, 139. 
18. Jaarboek KM 1984, 234. Jaarboek KM 1986, 132. Borst, Preparing, 45. Possibly disbanded in wartime: the squadron is not mentioned in the overview of the Royal Navy's wartime organisation in NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op.cit., 34-35. VGSQ: in later years the abbreviation VSQ was used.
19. Jaarboek KM 1985, 20, 81. Jaarboek KM 1986, 131-132. Van Alphen et al., Terg mij niet, 84. Arends et al., KLuMLD, 38-39. Borst, Preparing, 45, 46. Borst, Orions, 14. Geldhof, 70 jaar, 210. Jensen en Platje, op. cit., 201 (Keflavik operations). Breguet Atlantic: these were the six aircraft that remained out of an original strength of nine aircraft; in previous years three had been lost in accidents at sea. Jaarboek KM 1984, 238, 374-375. Geldhof, op. cit., 209. Sold back to France: Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 76. The introduction of the P-3C Orion began in 1982, the last batch of four Orions entered service between February and October 1984. Jaarboek KM 1984, 236. Geldhof, op. cit., 210. "Very agressive intelligence gathering": according to Royal (UK) Air Force watch officers at Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN) / Eastern Atlantic Command (EASTLANT) Headquarters in Northwood (UK). Jensen en Platje, op. cit., 197; see also 202. SAR role: Jaarboek KM 1985, 141. Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. 
20. Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. Jensen en Platje, op. cit., 316. Noise Analysis Centre: Van Alphen et al., ibid. Jensen en Platje, op. cit., 312-316. The Naval Intelligence Service fell under the Ministry of Defence. Kluiters, De Nederlandse, 237. 
21. Jaarboek KM 1983, 348. Jaarboek KM 1987, 213.
22. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31.
23. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 69-70. Jaarboek KM 1987, 213-214. Geldhof, op. cit., 157, 160, 209. Tactical transport for BBE counterterrorism operations: Jaarboek KM 1987, 214. Van der Spek, Een wapen, 118-119, 122-123. It should be noted that I have found only indirect evidence that this role was assigned to VGSQ 7. Jaarboek KM 1987, loc. cit., reports three exercises with BBE-M in that year. The squadron's Westland Lynx Mk 25 helicopters were probably more suitable for such operations than the Mk 27 and Mk 81 flown by VGSQ 860, as there would be no sonar equipment in the way. However, after the reported removal of the MAD-systems from the Mk 81 helicopters in 1984 these helicopters were perhaps employed as well; see Royal Navy, Aircraft, note d. Also, the SAR experience of the pilots would be more suited to these operations.   
24. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 63, 69-70.
25. NIMH VVKM 623, 1 VVKM 1 Voorschrift betreffende de opdracht en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 24 november 1988, 2-2. This grouping, or category, does not appear in the 1984 concepts for VVKM 195A (Handboek betreffende bestuur en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten) and VVKM 195B (Voorschrift betreffende de opdracht, de taken en de organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten). NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657. It appears that VVKM 195A and 195B never went beyond the concept stage and were replaced by the aforementioned 1 VVKM 1 (1988) and 1 VVKM 2 (1989). It seems that 1 VVKM 1 is merely more complete in its formal description of the type-organisation, but it remains unclear whether this grouping should be seen as a provision pro forma, or whether it actually included units on a permanent basis, and if so, which units.
26. Jaarboek KM 1987, 211. Geldhof, op. cit., 152-153. Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 75. Naval Aviation Service (Marineluchtvaartdienst) part of the Fleet: NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657, concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195A (VVKM 195A) inzake bestuur en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 3-3, 3-4.
27. Only eight sonar-equipped helicopters: this does not mean that the other nine onboard helicopters were completely useless; see Royal Navy, Aircraft, note d. It should also be noted that the Royal Navy was content with the Alcatel DUAV-4A dipping sonar, but judged its effective range insufficient and preferred to wait until a longer-range dipping sonar would become available. HTK 1986-1987, kamerstuknr. 19897 ondernr. 2 (Rapport Lynx-helikopers Koninklijke Marine), 7, 18, 20-21. Schoonoord, op. cit., 211, 238-239. Budgetary restrictions meant that this gap in ASW capability would remain until well after 1989. Schoonoord, op.cit., 270, 283. Maintenance problems and decreased deployability: HTK 1986-1987, op. cit., 18-20. Jaarboek KM 1986, 65-66. Schoonoord, op.cit., 283. Improvement from 1987: Jaarboek KM 1987, 213. Geldof, op. cit., 166.
28. P-3C Orion very capable: Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. Geldhof, op. cit., 173. Jensen en Platje, op. cit., 201. Schoonoord, op. cit., 285. Borst, Orions, 14. Maintenance problems coming to light in later years (1987-1989): Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 89-90. Schoonoord, op. cit., 287. Similar problems in the Royal Army: most manifest during the introduction of the Leopard 1V tank and the PRTL self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. For an outline of the problems with the Leopard 1V upgrading programme see for instance Royal Army, 1 (NL) Corps, 13 Armoured Brigade, notes a, b and footnote 5. For an outline of the maintenance problems with the PRTL and their effects on operational readiness, see Unit Organisation and Equipment, The Armoured Anti-Aircraft Artillery BatterySee also Corps Logistic Command, Reorganisations 1984-1990s.
29. Jaarboek KM 1985, 142. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 32.
30. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 1952, concept VVKM 162 Oorlogsmemorandum der Koninklijke Marine 1981-1982, 3-2 t/m 3-3.
31. The regional boundaries of the four Maritime Resources Commands (Commandementen Maritieme Middelen) are described in detail in NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657, concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195B (VVKM 195B) inzake de opdracht, taken en organisatie van de zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 1/2-15 t/m 1/2-16. Jaarboek KM 1987 contains both schematic maps and descriptions but these are inaccurate.
32. Jaarboek KM 1985, 142. Jaarboek KM 1986, 133.
33. Jaarboek KM 1984, 248, 256, 257, 259
34. Jaarboek KM 1985, 151. 
35. Ibid. Jaarboek KM 1987, 200, 225. 
36. Jaarboek KM 1985, 152. Jaarboek KM 1986, 140, 158.
37. Jaarboek KM 1985, 155. Jaarboek KM 1987, 208, 225.
38. Jaarboek KM 1983, 381-382.
39. Jaarboek KM 1985, 159. Jaarboek KM 1986, 141. Jaarboek KM 1987, 221-224.
40. Jaarboek KM 1984, 265. Jaarboek KM 1985, 156. 
41. Jaarboek KM 1985, 155. Jaarboek KM 1987, 208. Under functional command (onder functioneel bevel): a separate command relationship giving a commander or functionary a task-specific authority over a unit not under his command. VS 2-7200, 24.
42. Schoeman, Succesvol en beheerst, 120, 121, 124, 125, 127. Peacetime personnel strength: Jaarboek KM 1984, 275. Cooperation with the Naval Intelligence Service: Jensen en Platje, op. cit., 164 (see also footnote 19). Armed with pistol: Jaarboek KM 1985, 175.  
43. Jaarboek KM 1984, 278, 280-281 (contains list of main firefighting equipment). Jaarboek KM 1985, 175. Jaarboek KM 1987, 281.
44. Peacetime personnel strength: Jaarboek KM 1984, 303.
45. Wartime organisation: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., Deel I, Hoofdstuk III, Hoofdstuk VII.
46. The 1983 Concept Defence Plan for the Royal Navy (NDPP Krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1983-1994) (see footnote 45) assumes the formation of four escort groups in wartime. With a fleet of eighteen frigates this would not have been possible in 1985, as seven frigates was considered the "absolute minimum" for an Atlantic escort group. Schoonoord, op. cit., 274. The serious financial problems the Royal Navy faced in these years meant that such ambitions had to be abandoned. Ibid., Hoofdstuk 5. The initial plan to operate with four escort groups is visible in the construction of two Jacob van Heemskerck-class frigates which, like the two Tromp-class frigates, were to operate as task group flagships.    
47. The importance of Dutch and Belgian harbours had become paramount after France left the NATO integrated military structure in 1966: this meant that the availability of French harbours in times of crisis or war was uncertain. See also NATO Commands, Northern Army Group and footnote 27, and Royal Army, National Territorial Command, Operational Role.  
48. For an escort group without an organic fast combat support ship CINCHAN demanded five frigates: three in action, one refuelling in a harbour, one in maintenance. Schoonoord, op. cit., 233.  
49. Belgian Navy and Admiral Benelux: Parrein, De evolutie en toekomst, Deel 1. Belgian naval units and bases: Moore, Jane's Fighting Ships 1985-86, 43-45. 
50. Aircraft Squadron 7, availability for BBE operations in wartime: BBE-M would remain operational in wartime, BBE-K would not; see Marine Corps, Part I, note i and Royal Military Constabulary, Part II, note j respectively.
51. In January 1985 the Balder-class patrol boats P 802 Hr.Ms. Balder and P 806 Hr.Ms. Hefring may still have been in conservation with the Mine Service and thus available for mobilisation; they were, however, sold to be scrapped in April 1985. Van Amstel, op. cit., 43-44.
52. Most land based logistic support units, such as schools, workshops and stores, fell directly under the Ministry of Defence and are therefore not shown here. See Royal Navy, Land-Based Logistic Support.