Command Netherlands 1
der Zeemacht in Nederland (CZMNED)
Part I: The Fleet (Sea)
| Part II: The Fleet (Air)
Naval Command Netherlands [a]
|Group of Escort
by Naval Commander Netherlands (Commandant der Zeemacht in Nederland,
CZMNED). Since November 1984 CZMNED had his war headquarters in the new
Netherlands (Maritiem Hoofdkwartier Nederland, MHKNED) in Julianadorp
(Den Helder). CZMNED held the NATO
Commander, Benelux Channel Command (COMBENECHAN, also known as
Commander, Benelux Subarea Channel); thus MHKNED was also HQ
COMBENECHAN. In addition, in wartime CZMNED
would have operational command over ships and units of the Belgian
Navy as Admiral Benelux (Admiraal Benelux, ABNL).2
Group of Escort Forces (Commandant Groep Escorteschepen, CGES) was also
Commander of the Squadron (Commandant Eskader, CESK), in wartime
Commander, First Netherlands Task Group (COMNLTG1), see below.3
The Fleet (Sea)
organisational chart above shows the sea-going part of the
Fleet: the Royal Navy's submarines, frigates and
Together with the Marine
Corps, the Fleet
'business end' of the Royal Navy.
For logistical and administrative purposes the Fleet was subdivided
into five type-oriented groups of operational units, the first
three of which are displayed above the dotted line: 4
grouping was known as the "type-organisation", which was designed to
maintain and make available the Royal Navy's means to conduct naval
operations. For any such operations, be it in peace or
war, the Royal Navy would employ the "task organisation"
concept. From the type-organisation Naval Commander Netherlands
would form temporary organisations tailored to specific
task groups (TG). Task groups could be subdivided into task units (TU)
task elements (TE), as needed. This
two-stage organisation closely followed NATO doctrine. The Fleet had
the NATO designation Task Force 429, call sign TG 429.5
Submarine Service (Onderzeedienst, OZD) with all submarines and
the torpedo tender;
Group of Escort Forces (Groep Escorteschepen, GES) comprising all
frigates and the two fast combat support ships;
Mine Service (Mijnendienst, MD) with all mine
countermeasures vessels: minehunters and minesweepers. Also part of
this group were the three patrol craft and the three
hydrographical survey ships.
In peacetime Naval Command Netherlands operated with four task groups,
as shown in the chart below the dotted line:
Fleet, or Task Force 429, was unlikely to ever operate as a single
force in wartime as its subordinate task groups, including those to be
formed on mobilisation (NLTG3/TG 429.6 and MBFLOT2/TG 429.2) were
earmarked to operate under different NATO commanders.
Squadron (Eskader, ESK), in NATO context known as Netherlands
(NLTG); NATO call sign TG 429.5. In peacetime the Squadron was
basically the Netherlands' standing naval force, in principle
permanently at sea. The minimum size of the Squadron
Tromp-class frigate (flagship), four
Kortenaer or Van
embarked, and one fast combat support ship. Each year
Squadron would undertake three sea
journeys (winter, spring, autumn), of which at least one longer than
six weeks. At sea the
Squadron conducted the last phase of working up
crews and ships to NATO operational readiness requirements and would
part in several NATO and multinational naval exercises.6
In wartime the Squadron
would become the First Netherlands Task Group
(NLTG1), for which the Royal Navy used the Dutch designation Eerste
(First Escort Group).7
(Fregattensquadron, FREGRON), NATO call sign TG 429.4. The Frigate
Squadron handled the first phases of working up ships and crews to
exercise-readiness, which phase was concluded with a four-week
auspices of the Royal (UK) Navy's Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST)
Portland, United Kingdom. After this, the ships would go to the
Squadron. The Frigate Squadron
usually comprised between one and three ships, which
combat support ships and submarines. The squadron would work
six ships per year and on average contribute to the operational
readiness of seven
to ten other ships, including frigates of the Belgian Navy. To prepare
for his wartime role the
of the Frigate Squadron (CFREGRON) would, in addition, each
year lead a
group of frigates during
various NATO or multinational naval exercises.8
the Frigate Squadron would most likely become the Second Netherlands
Task Group (NLTG2),
in Dutch: Tweede Escortegroep (Second Escort Group).9
Countermeasures Flotilla 1 (Mijnenbestrijdingsflottielje 1, MBFLOT1),
NATO call sign TG 429.1. Mine countermeasures (MCM) flotillas would, as
needed, be subdivided into
task units: per flotilla probably up to three MCM squadrons
MBRON) and up to six task elements: MCM divisions
(Mijnenbestrijdingsdivisie, MBDIV). It appears an MCM
squadron usually comprised four to six vessels, an MCM
two vessels. MBFLOT1 operated from Den Helder, mainly with
Countermeasures Flotilla 3 (Mijnenbestrijdingsflottielje 3, MBFLOT3),
NATO call sign TG 429.3. Operated from Vlissingen, mainly with
ships of the Group of Escort Forces were in principle permanently in
service. Kortenaer-class frigates would be taken in for a five-month
maintenance period every three years. The other ships of the Group
would each spend four months in maintenance every two years.
impression is that the mine countermeasure vessels were
permanently in service. The submarines would be in maintenance for six
months every two and a half years.12
Submarines were not part of a task group though they could of course
operate in support of one. They probably operated individually most of
the time. In peacetime the submarines fell under operational control of
Naval Commander Netherlands, with operational command delegated to the
Commander of the Submarine Service (Commandant Onderzeedienst, COZD).
The mission of the Submarine Service was threefold:
Submarine Service worked closely with its British counterpart and
frequently operated from Faslane (Naval Base Clyde) in Scotland, under
operational command of the British Flag Officer Submarines (FOSM).14
for war operations by taking part in national and NATO
the opportunity for surface units, aircraft and other
submarines, predominantly from the Royal Navy and the Royal
(UK) Navy, to realistically exercise anti-submarine warfare (ASW)
secret national or NATO reconnaissance, surveillance and intelligence
NATO Standing Naval Forces
Royal Navy was a regular participant in NATO's two permanent
multinational, integrated naval squadrons: Standing Naval Force
Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT) and Standing Naval Force Channel
(STANAVFORCHAN). These were the Immediate Reaction
Forces of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic
(SACLANT) and Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN)
to provide a
quick military response to emerging crises as well as
providing a permanent display of allied solidarity, vigilance
and military integration (see also NATO Commands, Multinational Forces). The standard
contribution of the Royal Navy was one frigate from the Group of Escort
Ships to STANAVFORLANT, and two mine
countermeasure vessels, one from each Mine Countermeasures
Flotilla, to STANAVFORCHAN.15
I: The Fleet (Sea) | Part
II: The Fleet (Air)
|Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group
Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group [a]
|Aircraft Squadron 2
Station Valkenburg [a] [d]
Helicopter Group [f]
|Aircraft Squadron 7
Lynx Mk 25
Lynx Mk 27, Mk 81
Station De Kooy [f] [i]
Patrol Aircraft Group (Commandant Groep Maritieme
Patrouillevliegtuigen, CMARPATVLIGRP) was also Commander Naval Air
Station Valkenburg (Commandant Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg, CMVKV).16
||Aircraft Squadron 2 (Vliegtuigsquadron 2, VGSQ
2) was the training squadron, probably to be disbanded in wartime.17
||Aircraft Squadron 320 (Vliegtuigsquadron 320,
VGSQ 320) and Aircraft Squadron 321 (VGSQ
321) were the operational anti-submarine warfare (ASW) squadrons. It
appears the thirteen P-3C Orions
were were owned and maintained by VGSQ 320, with aircraft being
detached to VGSQ 2 for training sorties and to VGSQ 321 for operational
sorties. Up to December 1984 VGSQ 321 had been operating with six
Breguet BR.1150 Atlantic (SP-13A) maritime patrol aircraft,
which were taken out of service and sold back to France in
1985. As of 18 October 1985 one P-3C
312, was permanently stationed
on NATO Naval Air Station Keflavik,
Iceland with crew and maintenance team. There it primarily
conducted NATO surveillance
operations under US Navy operational command, in
close cooperation with US Navy Patrol
Squadron Keflavik (PATRONKEF). Orion nr. 312 would be operated
alternately by crews from VGSQ 320 and VGSQ 321, incidentally by a crew
from VGSQ 2.
At Naval Air Station Valkenburg one P-3C Orion was permanently on
stand-by for search and rescue missions (SAR, in Dutch naval
terminology: Opsporings- en Reddingsdienst, OSRD). In wartime VGSQ 320
would be assigned to Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) and
mainly operate from RAF Machrihanish (UK). VGSQ 321 would be
assigned to Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) and mainly operate
from RAF St. Mawgan (UK). Orions operating from Naval Air Station
Valkenburg would be placed under operational authority of SACLANT,
operational command probably remaining with Commander Maritime Patrol
||Naval Air Station
Valkenburg (Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg, MVKV) was formally not part of
Patrol Aircraft Group.
||In the Royal Navy the Groep Helikopters was
sometimes referred to as Groep Hefschroefvliegtuigen (Rotary-Wing
||Commander Helicopter Group (Commandant
Groep Helikopters, CHELIGRP) was also Commander Naval Air
Station De Kooy (Commandant Marinevliegkamp De Kooy, CMVKV).20
Squadron 7 (Vliegtuigsquadron 7, VGSQ 7) was the training and search
and rescue (SAR) squadron. The squadron
with five Westland Lynx Mk 25 (UH-14A)
helicopters from Naval Air
Station De Kooy
and was therefore sometimes referred
helicopter squadron (squadron walhelikopters). One helicopter was
permanently on stand-by for SAR missions. The squadron further
and liaison tasks and was available for disaster relief. In addition
the squadron was probably responsible for providing tactical transport
for the Marine
Corps Special Assistance Unit (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid
Mariniers, BBE-M) and the Amphibious Section
of the Marine Corps (Amfibische Sectie, AMFSIE) during (exercises for)
counterterrorism operations, notably for those concerning oil
installations (oil platforms) in the North Sea. From the mid-1980s the Armed
Forces Special Assistance Unit
(Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Krijgsmacht, BBE-K) would also participate
in such exercises, with a Lynx helicopter serving as a platform for two
snipers/precision shooters. In wartime the squadron would
be assigned to Admiral
Benelux (ABNL) for liaison and SAR tasks along the Dutch and
Belgian coast and, we may assume, remain available for BBE operations.21
Squadron 860 (Vliegtuigsquadron 860, VGSQ 860) was the operational
ASW squadron, from which helicopters with crew and maintenance
(flight units, vluchteenheden) would be detached to the
and fast combat support ships of the
Fleet. The squadron operated nine Westland
Lynx Mk 27 (SH-14B) and eight Mk
helicopters. Their primary role was
anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations, with reconnaissance and
utility work (transport, liaison) as secondary roles. In ASW operations
a helicopter would primarily function as an integrated part of the
sensor, weapon and command system of the ship on which it was
stationed, usually working closely with an 'on task' P-3C
Orion of the
Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.22
to effectively support the Fleet in ASW operations the squadron was
seriously short in sonar-equipped helicopters; see Royal
||Naval Air Station
De Kooy (Marinevliegkamp De Kooy, MVKK) was formally not part of
the Helicopter Group.
(ships or aircraft) that were, temporarily or permanently, not
assigned to one of the five aforelisted type-organisation groups.23
The Fleet (Air)
above displays the two remaining type-oriented
groups of operational units: the Maritime
Patrol Aircraft Group (Groep Maritieme Patrouillevliegtuigen,
MARPATVLIGRP) and the Helicopter Group (Groep Helikopters, HELIGRP).
Together these formed the Naval Air Service
(Marineluchtvaartdienst, MLD). Since 1977 the MLD was no longer a
command level, both groups falling directly under Naval Commander
Netherlands as shown.24
is the rather serious shortage in dipping sonars for the already
modestly sized fleet of onboard helicopters: as noted, since 1984 there
were probably only eight sonar-equipped helicopters to support eighteen
frigates in ASW operations. To make
matters worse, from about 1980 the deployability of the Royal Navy's
helicopters had been suffering from structural maintenance problems.
This otherwise excellent helicopter needed more maintenance and repair
than expected, and the fact that there were three different types in
use did not help. In 1984 deployability was at
40%, on average, where 70% was the minimum requirement. Measures were
taken, but only in 1987
the situation was beginning to improve.25
the P-3C Orion patrol aircraft the MLD
had acquired a very capable and sophisticated ASW platform, but
in later years maintenance problems would come to light here
well. The causes may have been different, but all in all it
that, at least when it came to its aircraft, the Royal Navy struggled,
not unlike the Royal Army, to meet the maintenance
requirements of new high-tech equipment.26
In wartime the aircraft squadrons would be assigned as noted above.
2.13.114, inv. nr. 8434, Doelstellingen, taken en organisatie
commandement der zeemacht in Nederland d.d. 13 november 1979, Bijlage
(organisatieschema). NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv.
nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15
januari 1981. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr.
535, NDPP Concept krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1984-1993 d.d.
maart 1983, Hoofdstuk III. NL-HaNA
2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, Voorstel bemanningslijst groep escorteschepen
d.d. 16 januari 1984, Bijlage 1, Bijlage 3. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr.
9657, concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine
195B (VVKM 195B) inzake de opdracht, taken en organisatie van de
zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 1/2-4 t/m 1/2-7, 3-3, 3-4. HTK
1983-1984, kamerstuknr. 18169 ondernr. 2
(Defensienota 1984-1993), 87. Jaarboek KM 1987, 177.
Headquarters Netherlands: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op.
cit., 28. Jaarboek
KM 1984, 129, 154. Jaarboek KM 1985, 92. In
peacetime CZMNED was headquartered in the "commandementsgebouw", also
known as "Het Paleis" ("The Palace") in Den Helder. Jaarboek
KM 1986, 76. Website Beelbank NIMH, commandementsgebouw CZMNED. Before
1984 CZMNED had his war headquarters in Koudekerke on the island of
Walcheren, Zeeland. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr.
cit. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Typechefschap d.d. 17 april 1980.
Admiral Benelux: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 27, 29, 35.
evolutie en toekomst, Deel 1.
2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen
(etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981, 5, 7, 10. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv.
6040, Voorstel wijziging BL 5101/STAFEKD d.d. 23 juni 1982, Bijlage A. NL-HaNA
2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, op. cit., Bijlage 1. NL-HaNA
2.12.56, inv. nr. 9575, BL 5101 STAFEKD d.d. 12 maart 1984.
should be noted that the Royal Navy used the word 'operational'
differently from the Royal
Army. In the Royal Navy 'operational units'
were units that would take part in naval or amphibious operations; a
logistic support or training unit, though operational, was not
as an 'operational unit'.
means that Naval Commander Netherlands was, in addition to the
nomenclature listed in note a, also known as Commander, Task Force 429
(CTF 429). To further
waters, this NATO designation was
apparently changed into Admiral Netherlands Fleet in 1984.
NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 2119,
Aanvullingsblad voor de Koninklijke Marine nr. 5 op Task Organization
Call Sign Book ACP 112(B) d.d. 19 juli 1984. A summary
may be in order: Naval Commander Netherlands (Commandant der Zeemacht
in Nederland, CZMNED) =
Commander, Task Force 429 (CTF 429) = Admiral Netherlands Fleet = Admiral
Benelux (Admiraal Benelux, ABNL) =
Commander, Benelux Channel Command (COMBENECHAN).
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 64, 84. HTK
1983-1984, op. cit., 90.
Composition of the Squadron: for example, during
its 1985 winter journey to the Mediterranean Sea, the
Squadron was composed of Tromp-class
frigate F 801 Hr.Ms. Tromp
(flag ship); Kortenaer-class
frigates F 808 Hr.Ms. Callenburgh, F
809 Hr.Ms Van Kinsbergen and F 811 Hr.Ms. Piet Heyn; Van
Speijk-class frigates F 803 Hr.Ms. Van Galen and F 814 Hr.Ms.
Sweers; fast combat support ship A 832
Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis; and four
helicopters. During 1985 the Squadron took part in three
NATO exercises and two multinational exercises. Jaarboek KM 1985, 95-96.
be noted that the Squadron
was known under a somewhat bewildering number of designations: Eskader
peacetime), Eerste Escortegroep (Dutch, wartime), Netherlands Task
Group (NATO, peacetime), First Netherlands Task Group (NATO, wartime),
Task Group 429.5 (NATO, peace and wartime). Jane's Fighting Ships 1985-86 adds
to the variety with the designation Anti-Submarine Warfare Group I.
Moore, op. cit., 348.
KM 1984, 23, 167-168. Jaarboek KM 1985, 101-102. Jaarboek KM 1986,
2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling
eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981,
7. Ibid., Commentaar op S 155.406/145939 d.d. 2 februari 1981.
NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Reorganisatie groep escorteschepen
d.d. 14 april 1983, Bijlage A.
1984 MBLOT1 was composed of MBRON11 with seven Alkmaar-class minehunters, and
MDIV141 with Dokkum-class minehunter M 842 Hr.Ms. Veere (decommissioned
on 19 October 1984) and Dokkum-class diving tender
M 820 Hr.Ms. Woerden. Jaarboek KM 1984, 196, 211. Jaarboek KM 1985 does
not report subdivisions of the flotilla. Throughout 1985 MBFLOT1
operated with all operational Alkmaar-class minehunters, comprising
between six and eight minehunters; also assigned for the larger part of
the year was the Dokkum-class diving tender M 820 Hr.Ms. Woerden.
Jaarboek KM 1985, 123-124.
MBFLOT3 was composed of MBRON31 with Alkmaar-class minehunters
M 852 Hr.Ms. Dordrecht and M 855 Hr.Ms. Scheveningen; MBRON32 with Dokkum-class minesweepers M
809 Hr.Ms. Naaldwijk, M 810 Hr.Ms. Abcoude,
M 812 Hr.Ms. Drachten, M
813 Hr.Ms. Ommen, M 823 Hr.Ms. Naarden and M
830 Hr.Ms. Sittard; MBDIV341
diving tender M 806
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 62. Jaarboek KM 1984, 325-330 (In
dienst zijnde eenheden in 1984).
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 66. See
Jaime Karremann, In
het diepste geheim. Spionage-operaties van Nederlandse onderzeeboten
van 1968 tot 1991 (Amsterdam:
Marineschepen.nl, 2017). English edition: In Deepest Secrecy: Dutch
Submarine Espionage Operations from 1968 to 1991).
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, loc. cit.
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 61, 64-65, 71. Participants in
STANAVFORLANT in 1985: Kortenaer-class
F 823 Hr.Ms. Philips van Almonde (up to January), F 825 Hr.Ms. Jan van
Brakel (January-June), F 826 Hr.Ms. Pieter Florisz (June-end of
November). Jaarboek KM 1985, 21, 109-111. Participants in STANAVFORCHAN
in 1985: Dokkum-class minesweepers M 813
Hr.Ms. Ommen and M 830 Hr.Ms. Sittard (up to June), Alkmaar-class minehunters M 851
Hr.Ms. Delfzijl (May-November), and M 853 Hr.Ms.
Haarlem (November-December). During September the Alkmaar-class
minehunter M 856 Hr.Ms. Maassluis and the Dokkum-class
minesweepers M 809 Hr.Ms. Naaldwijk and M 823 Hr.Ms. Naarden
were added to STANAVFORCHAN for the NATO exercise Ocean Safari '85.
Jaarboek KM 1985, 21-22, 124-126, 129-130.
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31. Jaarboek
KM 1985, 139.
KM 1984, 234. Jaarboek
KM 1986, 132. Borst, Preparing,
45. Probably disbanded in wartime: the squadron is not mentioned in the
overview of the Royal Navy's war organisation in NL-HaNA 2.13.182,
inv. nr. 535, op.cit., 34-35. VGSQ: in later years the abbreviation VSQ
KM 1985, 20, 81. Jaarboek KM 1986, 131-132. Van
Alphen et al., Terg mij niet, 84. Arends et
38-39. Borst, Preparing,
45, 46. Borst, Orions,
14. Geldhof, 70 jaar,
Breguet Atlantic: these were the six aircraft that remained
out of an original strength of nine aircraft; in previous years three
had been lost in accidents at sea. Jaarboek KM 1984, 238, 374-375.
Geldhof, op. cit., 209. Sold back to France: Van Alphen et al., op.
cit., 76. The introduction of the P-3C Orion began in 1982, the last
batch of four Orions entered
service between February and October 1984. Jaarboek KM 1984, 236.
Geldhof, op. cit., 210. SAR role:
Jaarboek KM 1985, 141. Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. NATO
command assignments in wartime: NL-HaNA
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 34, 67-68.
348. Jaarboek KM 1987, 213.
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31.
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 69-70. Jaarboek KM 1987, 213-214.
Geldhof, op. cit., 157, 160, 209. Tactical transport for BBE
counterterrorism operations: Jaarboek KM 1987, 214. Van der Spek, Een wapen,
118-119, 122-123. It should be noted that I have found only indirect
evidence that this role was assigned to VGSQ 7. Jaarboek KM
cit., reports three exercises with BBE-M in that year. The squadron's
Westland Lynx Mk 25 helicopters were probably more suitable for such
operations than the Mk 27 and Mk 81 flown by VGSQ 860, as there would
be no sonar equipment in the way. However, after the reported removal
of the MAD-systems from the Mk 81 helicopters in 1984 these helicopters
were perhaps employed as well; see Royal Navy, Aircraft,
note d. Also, the
SAR experience of the pilots would be more suited to these operations.
Availability for BBE operations in wartime: BBE-M
would remain operational in wartime (though BBE-K would not); see
Marine Corps, Part I, note i and Royal Military
Constabulary, Part II, note j
2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 63, 69-70.
VVKM 623, 1 VVKM 1 Voorschrift betreffende de opdracht en organisatie
der zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 24 november 1988, 2-2. This
does not appear in the 1984 concepts for VVKM 195A (Handboek
betreffende bestuur en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten) and VVKM 195B
(Voorschrift betreffende de opdracht, de taken en de organisatie der
2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657.
It appears that VVKM 195A and 195B never went beyond the concept stage
and were replaced by the aforementioned 1 VVKM 1 (1988) and 1 VVKM 2
(1989). It seems that 1 VVKM 1 is merely more complete in its formal
description of the type-organisation. It remains unclear however
whether this category included units on a permanent basis, and
so, which units.
KM 1987, 211. Geldhof, op. cit., 152-153. Van Alphen et al., op. cit.,
eight sonar-equipped helicopters: this does not mean that the other
nine onboard helicopters were completely useless; see Royal Navy, Aircraft,
note d. It should also be noted that the
Royal Navy was content with the Alcatel DUAV-4A dipping sonar, but
judged its effective range insufficient and preferred to wait until a
longer-range dipping sonar would become available. HTK 1986-1987,
kamerstuknr. 19897 ondernr. 2
(Rapport Lynx-helikopers Koninklijke Marine), 7, 18,
20-21. Schoonoord, Pugno,
211, 238-239. Budgetary restrictions meant that this gap in ASW
capability would remain until well after 1989. Schoonoord, op.cit.,
270, 283. Maintenance problems and decreased deployability: HTK
1986-1987, op. cit.,
18-20. Jaarboek KM 1986, 65-66. Schoonoord, op.cit., 283. Improvement
from 1987: Jaarboek KM 1987, 213. Geldof, op. cit., 166.
Orion very capable: Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. Geldhof, op. cit.,
173. Schoonoord, op. cit., 285. Borst, Orions,
problems coming to light in later years (1987-1989): Van Alphen et al.,
op. cit., 89-90. Schoonoord, op. cit., 287. Similar problems in the
Royal Army: most manifest during the introduction of the Leopard
1V tank and the PRTL self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. For
an outline of the problems with the Leopard 1V upgrading programme see
instance Royal Army, 1 (NL) Corps, 13
Armoured Brigade, notes
a, b and footnote 5. For
an outline of the maintenance problems with the PRTL and their effects
operational readiness, see Unit Organisation
and Equipment, The Armoured Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battery. See also
Corps Logistic Command, Reorganisations 1984-1990s.