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Naval Command Netherlands 1
Commandement der Zeemacht in Nederland (CZMNED)

Part I: The Fleet (Sea) | Part II: The Fleet (Air) 

(Dolfijn-class submarines)(Potvis-class submarines)(Alkmaar-class minehunters)(Dokkum-class minesweepers)(Tromp-class frigates)(Zwaardvis-class submarines)(Hr.Ms. Onbevreesd headquarters and support ship)(Fast combat support ships)(Buyskes-class survey ships)(Hr.Ms. Mercuur torpedo tender)ST(Van Speijk-class frigates)(Hr.Ms. Tydeman survey ship)(Kortenaer-class frigates)(Balder-class patrol craft)GESESK (NLTG) (TG 429.5)MBFLOT2 (TG 429.2)(ST)NLTG3 (TG 429.6)CZMNEDSTFREGRON (TG 429.4)MBFLOT1 (TG 429.1)MDOZDSTMBFLOT3 (TG 429.3)
Unit Location Peace Strength War Strength
Staff Naval Command Netherlands [a] Den Helder 47/54/34/8 (143)
29/54/36/8 (127)
Submarine Service Den Helder ?
Group of Escort Forces [b] (Afloat) ?
Mine Service Den Helder ?

a. Headed by Naval Commander Netherlands (Commandant der Zeemacht in Nederland, CZMNED). Since November 1984 CZMNED had his war headquarters in the new Maritime Headquarters Netherlands (Maritiem Hoofdkwartier Nederland, MHKNED) in Julianadorp (Den Helder). CZMNED held the NATO command of Commander, Benelux Channel Command (COMBENECHAN, also known as Commander, Benelux Subarea Channel); thus MHKNED was also HQ COMBENECHAN. In addition, in wartime CZMNED would have operational command over ships and units of the Belgian Navy as Admiral Benelux (Admiraal Benelux, ABNL).2
b. Commander, Group of Escort Forces (Commandant Groep Escorteschepen, CGES) was also Commander of the Squadron (Commandant Eskader, CESK), in wartime Commander, First Netherlands Task Group (COMNLTG1), see below.3

The Fleet (Sea)

The organisational chart above shows the sea-going part of the Fleet: the Royal Navy's submarines, frigates and mine-countermeasure vessels. Together with the Marine Corps, the Fleet formed the 'business end' of the Royal Navy
For logistical and administrative purposes the Fleet was subdivided into five type-oriented groups of operational units, the first three of which are displayed above the dotted line:
  • The Submarine Service (Onderzeedienst, OZD) with all submarines and the torpedo tender;
  • The Group of Escort Forces (Groep Escorteschepen, GES) comprising all frigates and the two fast combat support ships;
  • The Mine Service (Mijnendienst, MD) with all mine countermeasures vessels: minehunters and minesweepers. Also part of this group were the three patrol craft and the three hydrographical survey ships.
This grouping was known as the "type-organisation", which was designed to maintain and make available the Royal Navy's means to conduct naval operations. For any such operations, be it in peace or war, the Royal Navy would employ the "task organisation" concept. From the type-organisation Naval Commander Netherlands would form temporary organisations tailored to specific missions: task groups (TG). Task groups could be subdivided into task units (TU) and task elements (TE), as needed. This two-stage organisation closely followed NATO doctrine. The Fleet had the NATO designation Task Force 429, call sign TG 429.5  
In peacetime Naval Command Netherlands operated with four task groups, as shown in the chart below the dotted line:
  • The Squadron (Eskader, ESK), in NATO context known as Netherlands Task Group (NLTG); NATO call sign TG 429.5. In peacetime the Squadron was basically the Netherlands' standing naval force, in principle permanently at sea. The minimum size of the Squadron was one Tromp-class frigate (flagship), four Kortenaer or Van Speijk-class frigates with helicopters embarked, and one fast combat support ship. Each year the Squadron would undertake three sea journeys (winter, spring, autumn), of which at least one longer than six weeks. At sea the Squadron conducted the last phase of working up crews and ships to NATO operational readiness requirements and would take part in several NATO and multinational naval exercises.6 In wartime the Squadron would become the First Netherlands Task Group (NLTG1), for which the Royal Navy used the Dutch designation Eerste Escortegroep (First Escort Group).7  
  • The Frigate Squadron (Fregattensquadron, FREGRON), NATO call sign TG 429.4. The Frigate Squadron handled the first phases of working up ships and crews to exercise-readiness, which phase was concluded with a four-week naval exercise under the auspices of the Royal (UK) Navy's Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) based at Portland, United Kingdom. After this, the ships would go to the Squadron. The Frigate Squadron usually comprised between one and three ships, which could also include fast combat support ships and submarines. The squadron would work up about six ships per year and on average contribute to the operational readiness of seven to ten other ships, including frigates of the Belgian Navy. To prepare for his wartime role the Commander of the Frigate Squadron (CFREGRON) would, in addition, each year lead a group of frigates during various NATO or multinational naval exercises.8 In wartime the Frigate Squadron would most likely become the Second Netherlands Task Group (NLTG2), in Dutch: Tweede Escortegroep (Second Escort Group).9  
  • Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 1 (Mijnenbestrijdingsflottielje 1, MBFLOT1), NATO call sign TG 429.1. Mine countermeasures (MCM) flotillas would, as needed, be subdivided into task units: per flotilla probably up to three MCM squadrons (Mijnenbestrijdingssquadron, MBRON) and up to six task elements: MCM divisions (Mijnenbestrijdingsdivisie, MBDIV). It appears an MCM squadron usually comprised four to six vessels, an MCM division two vessels. MBFLOT1 operated from Den Helder, mainly with Alkmaar-class minehunters.10
  • Mine Countermeasures Flotilla 3 (Mijnenbestrijdingsflottielje 3, MBFLOT3), NATO call sign TG 429.3. Operated from Vlissingen, mainly with Dokkum-class minesweepers.11 
The Fleet, or Task Force 429, was unlikely to ever operate as a single force in wartime as its subordinate task groups, including those to be formed on mobilisation (NLTG3/TG 429.6 and MBFLOT2/TG 429.2) were earmarked to operate under different NATO commanders.  
The ships of the Group of Escort Forces were in principle permanently in service. Kortenaer-class frigates would be taken in for a five-month maintenance period every three years. The other ships of the Group would each spend four months in maintenance every two years. The impression is that the mine countermeasure vessels were similarly permanently in service. The submarines would be in maintenance for six months every two and a half years
The Submarines were not part of a task group though they could of course operate in support of one. They probably operated individually most of the time. In peacetime the submarines fell under operational control of Naval Commander Netherlands, with operational command delegated to the Commander of the Submarine Service (Commandant Onderzeedienst, COZD). The mission of the Submarine Service was threefold:
  • Prepare for war operations by taking part in national and NATO exercises;
  • Provide the opportunity for surface units, aircraft and other submarines, predominantly from the Royal Navy and the Royal (UK) Navy, to realistically exercise anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations;
  • Execute secret national or NATO reconnaissance, surveillance and intelligence missions.13   
The Submarine Service worked closely with its British counterpart and frequently operated from Faslane (Naval Base Clyde) in Scotland, under operational command of the British Flag Officer Submarines (FOSM).14

NATO Standing Naval Forces

The Royal Navy was a regular participant in NATO's two permanent multinational, integrated naval squadrons: Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT) and Standing Naval Force Channel (STANAVFORCHAN). These were the Immediate Reaction Forces of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) and Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) respectively, meant to provide a quick military response to emerging crises as well as providing a permanent display of allied solidarity, vigilance and military integration (see also NATO Commands, Multinational Forces). The standard contribution of the Royal Navy was one frigate from the Group of Escort Ships to STANAVFORLANT, and two mine countermeasure vessels, one from each Mine Countermeasures Flotilla, to STANAVFORCHAN.15

Part I: The Fleet (Sea) | Part II: The Fleet (Air)

MVKKMVKVVGSQ 860VGSQ 7VGSQ 321VGSQ 320(Niet in een groep ingedeelde eenheden)VGSQ 2STHELIGRPMARPATVLIGRPST

Unit Main Equipment Location Peace Strength War Strength
Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group
Staff Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group [a]     Valkenburg ?
Aircraft Squadron 2 [b] Lockheed P-3C Orion Valkenburg ?
Aircraft Squadron 320 [c] Lockheed P-3C Orion Valkenburg ?
Aircraft Squadron 321 [c] Lockheed P-3C Orion Valkenburg ?
Naval Air Station Valkenburg [a] [d]     Valkenburg ?
Helicopter Group [e]
Staff Helicopter Group [f]     Den Helder ?
Aircraft Squadron 7 [g] Westland Lynx Mk 25 Den Helder ?
Aircraft Squadron 860 [h] Westland Lynx Mk 27, Mk 81 Den Helder ?
Naval Air Station De Kooy [f] [i]     Den Helder ?
(Non-assigned units) [j]                

a. Commander Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group (Commandant Groep Maritieme Patrouillevliegtuigen, CMARPATVLIGRP) was also Commander Naval Air Station Valkenburg (Commandant Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg, CMVKV).16
b. Aircraft Squadron 2 (Vliegtuigsquadron 2, VGSQ 2) was the training squadron, probably to be disbanded in wartime.17
c. Aircraft Squadron 320 (Vliegtuigsquadron 320, VGSQ 320) and Aircraft Squadron 321 (VGSQ 321) were the operational anti-submarine warfare (ASW) squadrons. It appears the thirteen P-3C Orions were were owned and maintained by VGSQ 320, with aircraft being detached to VGSQ 2 for training sorties and to VGSQ 321 for operational sorties. Up to December 1984 VGSQ 321 had been operating with six Breguet BR.1150 Atlantic (SP-13A) maritime patrol aircraft, which were taken out of service and sold back to France in 1985. As of 18 October 1985 one P-3C Orion, nr. 312, was permanently stationed on NATO Naval Air Station Keflavik, Iceland with crew and maintenance team. There it primarily conducted NATO surveillance operations under US Navy operational command, in close cooperation with US Navy Patrol Squadron Keflavik (PATRONKEF). Orion nr. 312 would be operated alternately by crews from VGSQ 320 and VGSQ 321, incidentally by a crew from VGSQ 2. At Naval Air Station Valkenburg one P-3C Orion was permanently on stand-by for search and rescue missions (SAR, in Dutch naval terminology: Opsporings- en Reddingsdienst, OSRD). In wartime VGSQ 320 would be assigned to Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) and mainly operate from RAF Machrihanish (UK). VGSQ 321 would be assigned to Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) and mainly operate from RAF St. Mawgan (UK). Orions operating from Naval Air Station Valkenburg would be placed under operational authority of SACLANT, operational command probably remaining with Commander Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.18 
d. Naval Air Station Valkenburg (Marinevliegkamp Valkenburg, MVKV) was formally not part of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.
e. In the Royal Navy the Groep Helikopters was sometimes referred to as Groep Hefschroefvliegtuigen (Rotary-Wing Aircraft Group).19
f. Commander Helicopter Group (Commandant Groep Helikopters, CHELIGRP) was also Commander Naval Air Station De Kooy (Commandant Marinevliegkamp De Kooy, CMVKV).20
g. Aircraft Squadron 7 (Vliegtuigsquadron 7, VGSQ 7) was the training and search and rescue (SAR) squadron. The squadron operated with five Westland Lynx Mk 25 (UH-14A) helicopters from Naval Air Station De Kooy and was therefore sometimes referred to as the shore helicopter squadron (squadron walhelikopters). One helicopter was permanently on stand-by for SAR missions. The squadron further performed transport and liaison tasks and was available for disaster relief. In addition the squadron was probably responsible for providing tactical transport for the Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Mariniers, BBE-M) and the Amphibious Section of the Marine Corps (Amfibische Sectie, AMFSIE) during (exercises for) counterterrorism operations, notably for those concerning oil and gas installations (oil platforms) in the North Sea. From the mid-1980s the Armed Forces Special Assistance Unit (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Krijgsmacht, BBE-K) would also participate in such exercises, with a Lynx helicopter serving as a platform for two snipers/precision shooters. In wartime the squadron would be assigned to Admiral Benelux (ABNL) for liaison and SAR tasks along the Dutch and Belgian coast and, we may assume, remain available for BBE operations.21
h. Aircraft Squadron 860 (Vliegtuigsquadron 860, VGSQ 860) was the operational ASW squadron, from which helicopters with crew and maintenance personnel (flight units, vluchteenheden) would be detached to the frigates and fast combat support ships of the Fleet. The squadron operated nine Westland Lynx Mk 27 (SH-14B) and eight Mk 81 (SH-14C) helicopters. Their primary role was anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations, with reconnaissance and general utility work (transport, liaison) as secondary roles. In ASW operations a helicopter would primarily function as an integrated part of the sensor, weapon and command system of the ship on which it was stationed, usually working closely with an 'on task' P-3C Orion of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group.22 However, to effectively support the Fleet in ASW operations the squadron was seriously short in sonar-equipped helicopters; see Royal Navy, Aircraft, note d 
i. Naval Air Station De Kooy (Marinevliegkamp De Kooy, MVKK) was formally not part of the Helicopter Group.
j. Units (ships or aircraft) that were, temporarily or permanently, not assigned to one of the five aforelisted type-organisation groups.23

The Fleet (Air)

The chart above displays the two remaining type-oriented groups of operational units: the Maritime Patrol Aircraft Group (Groep Maritieme Patrouillevliegtuigen, MARPATVLIGRP) and the Helicopter Group (Groep Helikopters, HELIGRP). Together these formed the Naval Air Service (Marineluchtvaartdienst, MLD). Since 1977 the MLD was no longer a command level, both groups falling directly under Naval Commander Netherlands as shown.24
Remarkable is the rather serious shortage in dipping sonars for the already modestly sized fleet of onboard helicopters: as noted, since 1984 there were probably only eight sonar-equipped helicopters to support eighteen frigates in ASW operations. To make matters worse, from about 1980 the deployability of the Royal Navy's Lynx helicopters had been suffering from structural maintenance problems. This otherwise excellent helicopter needed more maintenance and repair than expected, and the fact that there were three different types in use did not help. In 1984 deployability was at 40%, on average, where 70% was the minimum requirement. Measures were taken, but only in 1987 the situation was beginning to improve.25  
With the P-3C Orion patrol aircraft the MLD had acquired a very capable and sophisticated ASW platform, but in later years maintenance problems would come to light here as well. The causes may have been different, but all in all it appears that, at least when it came to its aircraft, the Royal Navy struggled, not unlike the Royal Army, to meet the maintenance requirements of new high-tech equipment.26
In wartime the aircraft squadrons would be assigned as noted above.

1. Organisation: NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 8434, Doelstellingen, taken en organisatie commandement der zeemacht in Nederland d.d. 13 november 1979, Bijlage (organisatieschema). NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, NDPP Concept krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1984-1993 d.d. maart 1983, Hoofdstuk III. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, Voorstel bemanningslijst groep escorteschepen d.d. 16 januari 1984, Bijlage 1, Bijlage 3. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657, concept Verzameling van Verordeningen voor de Koninklijke Marine 195B (VVKM 195B) inzake de opdracht, taken en organisatie van de zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 3 mei 1984, 1/2-4 t/m 1/2-7, 3-3, 3-4. HTK 1983-1984, kamerstuknr. 18169 ondernr. 2 (Defensienota 1984-1993), 87. Jaarboek KM 1987, 177.
2. Maritime Headquarters Netherlands: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 28. Jaarboek KM 1984, 129, 154. Jaarboek KM 1985, 92. In peacetime CZMNED was headquartered in the "commandementsgebouw", also known as "Het Paleis" ("The Palace") in Den Helder. Jaarboek KM 1986, 76. Website Beelbank NIMH, commandementsgebouw CZMNED. Before 1984 CZMNED had his war headquarters in Koudekerke on the island of Walcheren, Zeeland. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, loc. cit. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Typechefschap d.d. 17 april 1980. Admiral Benelux: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 27, 29, 35. Parrein, De evolutie en toekomst, Deel 1.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981, 5, 7, 10. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6040, Voorstel wijziging BL 5101/STAFEKD d.d. 23 juni 1982, Bijlage A. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9896, op. cit., Bijlage 1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 9575, BL 5101 STAFEKD d.d. 12 maart 1984.
4. It should be noted that the Royal Navy used the word 'operational' differently from the Royal Army. In the Royal Navy 'operational units' were units that would take part in naval or amphibious operations; a logistic support or training unit, though operational, was not classed as an 'operational unit'.
5. This means that Naval Commander Netherlands was, in addition to the nomenclature listed in note a, also known as Commander, Task Force 429 (CTF 429). To further muddy the waters, this NATO designation was apparently changed into Admiral Netherlands Fleet in 1984. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 2119, Aanvullingsblad voor de Koninklijke Marine nr. 5 op Task Organization Call Sign Book ACP 112(B) d.d. 19 juli 1984. A summary may be in order: Naval Commander Netherlands (Commandant der Zeemacht in Nederland, CZMNED) = Commander, Task Force 429 (CTF 429) = Admiral Netherlands Fleet = Admiral Benelux (Admiraal Benelux, ABNL) = Commander, Benelux Channel Command (COMBENECHAN). 
6. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 64, 84. HTK 1983-1984, op. cit., 90. Composition of the Squadron: for example, during its 1985 winter journey to the Mediterranean Sea, the Squadron was composed of Tromp-class frigate F 801 Hr.Ms. Tromp (flag ship); Kortenaer-class frigates F 808 Hr.Ms. Callenburgh, F 809 Hr.Ms Van Kinsbergen and F 811 Hr.Ms. Piet Heyn; Van Speijk-class frigates F 803 Hr.Ms. Van Galen and F 814 Hr.Ms. Isaac Sweers; fast combat support ship A 832 Hr.Ms. Zuiderkruis; and four embarked Lynx helicopters. During 1985 the Squadron took part in three NATO exercises and two multinational exercises. Jaarboek KM 1985, 95-96.
7. It will be noted that the Squadron was known under a somewhat bewildering number of designations: Eskader (Dutch, peacetime), Eerste Escortegroep (Dutch, wartime), Netherlands Task Group (NATO, peacetime), First Netherlands Task Group (NATO, wartime), Task Group 429.5 (NATO, peace and wartime). Jane's Fighting Ships 1985-86 adds to the variety with the designation Anti-Submarine Warfare Group I. Moore, op. cit., 348.    
8. Jaarboek KM 1984, 23, 167-168. Jaarboek KM 1985, 101-102. Jaarboek KM 1986, 85-87.
9. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Indeling eenheden in diensten en groepen (etc.) d.d. 15 januari 1981, 7. Ibid., Commentaar op S 155.406/145939 d.d. 2 februari 1981. NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9352, Reorganisatie groep escorteschepen d.d. 14 april 1983, Bijlage A. 
10. In 1984 MBLOT1 was composed of MBRON11 with seven Alkmaar-class minehunters, and MDIV141 with Dokkum-class minehunter M 842 Hr.Ms. Veere (decommissioned on 19 October 1984) and Dokkum-class diving tender M 820 Hr.Ms. Woerden. Jaarboek KM 1984, 196, 211. Jaarboek KM 1985 does not report subdivisions of the flotilla. Throughout 1985 MBFLOT1 operated with all operational Alkmaar-class minehunters, comprising between six and eight minehunters; also assigned for the larger part of the year was the Dokkum-class diving tender M 820 Hr.Ms. Woerden. Jaarboek KM 1985, 123-124.
11. In 1985 MBFLOT3 was composed of MBRON31 with Alkmaar-class minehunters M 852 Hr.Ms. Dordrecht and M 855 Hr.Ms. Scheveningen; MBRON32 with Dokkum-class minesweepers M 809 Hr.Ms. Naaldwijk, M 810 Hr.Ms. Abcoude, M 812 Hr.Ms. Drachten, M 813 Hr.Ms. Ommen, M 823 Hr.Ms. Naarden and M 830 Hr.Ms. Sittard; MBDIV341 with Dokkum-class diving tender M 806 Hr.Ms. Roermond.      
12. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 62. Jaarboek KM 1984, 325-330 (In dienst zijnde eenheden in 1984).
13. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 66. See Jaime Karremann, In het diepste geheim. Spionage-operaties van Nederlandse onderzeeboten van 1968 tot 1991 (Amsterdam: Marineschepen.nl, 2017). English edition: In Deepest Secrecy: Dutch Submarine Espionage Operations from 1968 to 1991).
14. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, loc. cit. 
15. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 61, 64-65, 71. Participants in STANAVFORLANT in 1985: Kortenaer-class frigates F 823 Hr.Ms. Philips van Almonde (up to January), F 825 Hr.Ms. Jan van Brakel (January-June), F 826 Hr.Ms. Pieter Florisz (June-end of November). Jaarboek KM 1985, 21, 109-111. Participants in STANAVFORCHAN in 1985: Dokkum-class minesweepers M 813 Hr.Ms. Ommen and M 830 Hr.Ms. Sittard (up to June), Alkmaar-class minehunters M 851 Hr.Ms. Delfzijl (May-November), and M 853 Hr.Ms. Haarlem (November-December). During September the Alkmaar-class minehunter M 856 Hr.Ms. Maassluis and the Dokkum-class minesweepers M 809 Hr.Ms. Naaldwijk and M 823 Hr.Ms. Naarden were added to STANAVFORCHAN for the NATO exercise Ocean Safari '85. Jaarboek KM 1985, 21-22, 124-126, 129-130.
16. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31. Jaarboek KM 1985, 139. 
17. Jaarboek KM 1984, 234. Jaarboek KM 1986, 132. Borst, Preparing, 45. Probably disbanded in wartime: the squadron is not mentioned in the overview of the Royal Navy's war organisation in NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op.cit., 34-35. VGSQ: in later years the abbreviation VSQ was used.
18. Jaarboek KM 1985, 20, 81. Jaarboek KM 1986, 131-132. Van Alphen et al., Terg mij niet, 84. Arends et al., KLuMLD, 38-39. Borst, Preparing, 45, 46. Borst, Orions, 14. Geldhof, 70 jaar, 210.  Breguet Atlantic: these were the six aircraft that remained out of an original strength of nine aircraft; in previous years three had been lost in accidents at sea. Jaarboek KM 1984, 238, 374-375. Geldhof, op. cit., 209. Sold back to France: Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 76. The introduction of the P-3C Orion began in 1982, the last batch of four Orions entered service between February and October 1984. Jaarboek KM 1984, 236. Geldhof, op. cit., 210. SAR role: Jaarboek KM 1985, 141. Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. NATO command assignments in wartime: NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 34, 67-68.
19. Jaarboek KM 1983, 348. Jaarboek KM 1987, 213.
20. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 31.
21. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 69-70. Jaarboek KM 1987, 213-214. Geldhof, op. cit., 157, 160, 209. Tactical transport for BBE counterterrorism operations: Jaarboek KM 1987, 214. Van der Spek, Een wapen, 118-119, 122-123. It should be noted that I have found only indirect evidence that this role was assigned to VGSQ 7. Jaarboek KM 1987, loc. cit., reports three exercises with BBE-M in that year. The squadron's Westland Lynx Mk 25 helicopters were probably more suitable for such operations than the Mk 27 and Mk 81 flown by VGSQ 860, as there would be no sonar equipment in the way. However, after the reported removal of the MAD-systems from the Mk 81 helicopters in 1984 these helicopters were perhaps employed as well; see Royal Navy, Aircraft, note d. Also, the SAR experience of the pilots would be more suited to these operations. Availability for BBE operations in wartime: BBE-M would remain operational in wartime (though BBE-K would not); see Marine Corps, Part I, note i and Royal Military Constabulary, Part II, note j respectively.   
22. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, op. cit., 63, 69-70.
23. NIMH VVKM 623, 1 VVKM 1 Voorschrift betreffende de opdracht en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten d.d. 24 november 1988, 2-2. This grouping does not appear in the 1984 concepts for VVKM 195A (Handboek betreffende bestuur en organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten) and VVKM 195B (Voorschrift betreffende de opdracht, de taken en de organisatie der zeestrijdkrachten). NL-HaNA 2.13.114, inv. nr. 9657. It appears that VVKM 195A and 195B never went beyond the concept stage and were replaced by the aforementioned 1 VVKM 1 (1988) and 1 VVKM 2 (1989). It seems that 1 VVKM 1 is merely more complete in its formal description of the type-organisation. It remains unclear however whether this category included units on a permanent basis, and if so, which units.
24. Jaarboek KM 1987, 211. Geldhof, op. cit., 152-153. Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 75. 
25. Only eight sonar-equipped helicopters: this does not mean that the other nine onboard helicopters were completely useless; see Royal Navy, Aircraft, note d. It should also be noted that the Royal Navy was content with the Alcatel DUAV-4A dipping sonar, but judged its effective range insufficient and preferred to wait until a longer-range dipping sonar would become available. HTK 1986-1987, kamerstuknr. 19897 ondernr. 2 (Rapport Lynx-helikopers Koninklijke Marine), 7, 18, 20-21. Schoonoord, Pugno, 211, 238-239. Budgetary restrictions meant that this gap in ASW capability would remain until well after 1989. Schoonoord, op.cit., 270, 283. Maintenance problems and decreased deployability: HTK 1986-1987, op. cit., 18-20. Jaarboek KM 1986, 65-66. Schoonoord, op.cit., 283. Improvement from 1987: Jaarboek KM 1987, 213. Geldof, op. cit., 166.
26. P-3C Orion very capable: Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 83. Geldhof, op. cit., 173. Schoonoord, op. cit., 285. Borst, Orions, 14. Maintenance problems coming to light in later years (1987-1989): Van Alphen et al., op. cit., 89-90. Schoonoord, op. cit., 287. Similar problems in the Royal Army: most manifest during the introduction of the Leopard 1V tank and the PRTL self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. For an outline of the problems with the Leopard 1V upgrading programme see for instance Royal Army, 1 (NL) Corps, 13 Armoured Brigade, notes a, b and footnote 5. For an outline of the maintenance problems with the PRTL and their effects on operational readiness, see Unit Organisation and Equipment, The Armoured Anti-Aircraft Artillery BatterySee also Corps Logistic Command, Reorganisations 1984-1990s.