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Online Publications
Military Planning for European Theatre Conflict during the Cold War by Jan Hoffenaar and Christopher Findlay (eds.)
Account of the Oral History Roundtable in Stockholm, 2006.
Zur Planung realer Angriffs- und Verteidigungsoperationen im Warschauer Pakt by Siegfried Lautsch
First published in Military Power Revue nr. 2, 2011 (Lohn-Ammannsegg, 2011). This article provides a detailed and contextual account of East German (NVA) operational war plans for 1983-1985, which involved extensive offensive operations against 1 (NL) Corps
Stasi Operations in the Netherlands, 1979–89 by Beatrice de Graaf
First published in CIA Studies in Intelligence Vol. 52, No. 1.
A Cold War Conundrum: The 1983 Soviet War Scare by Benjamin B. Fischer
First Published by the CIA Center for the Studies in Intelligence, 1997.
The 1983 War Scare: "The Last Paroxysm" of the Cold War by Nate Jones (ed.)
The Soviet War Scare of 1983, which may have brought the world to the edge of nuclear war, evolved around the NATO nuclear release exercise Able Archer 83. From our perspective it is interesting to note that this three-part posting by the National Security Archive (2013) identifies Able Archer 83 as being the culmination of Autumn Forge 83, a series of large-scale NATO military exercises. Atlantic Lion, the 1983 Field Training Exercise (FTX) for 1 (NL) Corps, formed a major component of Autumn Forge 83, involving ± 24.000 men, 850 tanks and armoured vehicles and 6000 other vehicles of the Royal Netherlands Army. A contemporary information booklet on Atlantic Lion (in Dutch) can be downloaded here; a summary page from an English language version can be found here.
The Able Archer 83 Sourcebook by Nate Jones (ed.)
Extensive online collection of articles and documents about Abler Archer 83 and the 1983 War Scare.
Able Archer 83: What Were the Soviets Thinking? by Gordon Barrass
First published in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, December 2016-January 2017. A different perspective on the 1983 War Scare: it was perhaps less scary than has been claimed. Further discussion here
Een geheime organisatie in beeld by Herman Schoenmaker
Thesis on the Dutch stay-behind organisation during the Cold War (2013). For information in English see the website Crypto Museum, Operatiën en Inlichtingen
De Nederlandse stay behind-organisatie in de koude oorlog 1945-1992 by D. Engelen
First published by Rijksarchiefdienst/PIVOT, 2006. Official report on the Dutch stay-behind organisation of the Cold War. Contains more detailed (organisational) information.
Maximator: European signals intelligence cooperation, from a Dutch perspective by B. Jacobs
First published in Intelligence and National Security, 2020. Article about the European signals intelligence (SIGINT) alliance Maximator and the participation therein of the Technical Information Processing Centre (Technisch Informatieverwerkingscentrum, TIVC), the SIGINT branch of the Dutch Naval Intelligence Service (Marineinlichtingendienst, MARID). The article reveals that TIVC during the Falklands War of 1982 showed the British General Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) how to decode encrypted Argentinian military communications.

The Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) 
Wilson Center, Cold War International History Project
Website by Manfred Tegge on the relics of World War II and the Cold War in Lower Saxony and Bremen (GE). Includes information on orders of battle, military organisation (Bundeswehr), and NATO exercises.
Cold War in Germany
Webpages on the US Army Forces in West Germany by Ron Mihalko. Contains extensive information on the Canadian Army Trophy (CAT) tank gunnery competition, including all results from 1963 to 1991.


United States
Die Streitkräfte der U.S.A. in Europa 1989 by O.W. Dragoner
Die Streitkräfte der U.S.A. in Europa 1989, Standortverzeichnis by O.W. Dragoner
United States Air Force 1989 by O.W. Dragoner

Group of Soviet Forces Germany 1988 by Craig R. Crofoot
GSSD 88 by "alterfritz"
Central Group of Forces 1988 by Craig R. Crofoot
Northern Group of Forces 1988 by Craig R. Crofoot

West German
Die Bundeswehr 1989 by O.W. Dragoner

East German
NVA 88 by "alterfritz"

BAOR Order of Battle July 1989 by Louis Vieuxbill (ed.)
British Army units from 1945 on by Alan Young
The Territorial Army 1967-2000 by Wienand Drenth

In de BSD, zo ging het toen by (unknown)

NATO Order of Battle 1989 by Pat Callahan (ed.)

Warsaw Pact
Eastern Order of Battle 

World War II
Royal Dutch Army Order of Battle: May 10th, 1940 by Rogier Peeters (archived)
World War II Armed Forces by Leo Niehorster


Online Publications
The Royal Netherlands Army Today by A.J. van Vuren
First published in Military Review, April 1982.
Je Maintiendrai: The Royal Netherlands Army within the Alliance by Vernon D. Sorrell
Thesis (1989)
Voorbereid op een verloren vijand by Dirk-Jan Wienen
Thesis on the evolution of the Royal Army's defence plans for the North German Plain, 1969-1990 (2016)
Vuur geëindigd! Artillerie-officier tijdens de Koude Oorlog by Leo J.J. Dorrestijn
An artillery officer's account of his service during the Cold War (2005)
De Centuriontank in Nederlandse dienst by Sander Ruys
First published in Armamentaria 37 (Delft, 2002). Text-only version. 
De YPR-765 in de Koninklijke Landmacht by Alfred Staarman
First published in Armamentaria 43 (Delft, 2008/2009). The page numbering differs from the printed version.
De DAF YP 408, een koninklijk voertuig by Sander Ruys
This is a re-edited version (hosted by DAF YP-408: Forgotten Hero?) of the article first published in Armamentaria 38 (Delft, 2003/2004). A text-only version of the original article can be downloaded here
PRTL, Pantser Rups Tegen Luchtdoelen by E.J. Keizer
First published in Armamentaria 33 (Delft, 1998). Text-only version. A different, modeling orientated version in English can be found here.
Beëindiging Koude Oorlog 25 jaar geleden. Herinneringen aan mijn actieve diensttijd by R.H. Rijntalder
An officer's account of his service with Royal Army Signals Command during the Cold War. First published in Intercom nrs. 1-3, 2016.
• Bevoorrading Klasse III: In 50 jaar van vuil en vervuilend naar nieuw en vernieuwend by P. IJntema
An overview of the Royal Army's fuel supply system 1967-2017. Published by the Bureau Geschiedschrijving Bevoorradings- en Transporttroepen (2017).
• Werktroepen. Uitzendkrachten avant la lettre by P. IJntema
On the Royal Army's underexposed labour forces. Published by the Bureau Geschiedschrijving Bevoorradings- en Transporttroepen (2017).
• Korps Mobiele Colonnes 1955-1992. Het traject: niets-iets v.v. by P.M. Mes
A history of the Royal Army's disaster relief corps, the Corps of Mobile Columns (1992).
• The NIKE Hercules missile system in service with the 12th (Netherlands) Missile Group by R. Dorenbos
A detailed historical and technical description of 12 Guided Weapons Group and its Nike Hercules surface-to-air missile systems. A version in Dutch can be found here.
Lessen uit de Koude Oorlog: Parallellen met de Koninklijke Landmacht in de jaren tachtig #1 by C. Kamphuis
First part of a four-part series that compares the Royal Army of the 1980s with the Royal Army of 2023 to draw lessons for the present and near future. One of the main references for the series is this website. Part 1 looks at organisation and operations; Part 2 at echelonment, logistics and the national sector; Part 3 at training, excercises and tactical doctrine; Part 4 at command, dispersed operations and the rear area. Published in Carré, monthly magazine of the Nederlandse Officierenvereniging, 2023.
'CAS sucks?" Close Air Support tijdens de Koude Oorlog by P. Dekkers
Short article about NATO's Close Air Support capabilities during the Cold War (including those of the Royal Air Force), intended as an addendum and commentary to the Lessen uit de Koude Oorlog series by C. Kamphuis (see above). Published in Carré nr. 8, december 2023.
Websites: Units and Services
43 Tankbataljon Regiment Huzaren van Sytzama: 't Harde-Langemannshof 1-2-1963 - 1-7-1992
Website compiling an extensive unit history of 43 Tank Battalion (41 Armoured Brigade).
41AFDVA.NET (archived)
Website compiling an extensive unit history of 41 Field Artillery Battalion (41 Armoured Brigade), focusing on 1987-1988. Also contains extensive information on the history and equipment of the Netherlands artillery in general.
Seedorf40 Weblog
Website about Seedorf Barracks, the primary base of the Royal Army's forward-deployed element in West Germany. Contains many personal accounts, photos, videos and archived publications.
107 Afdva
Website about 107 Field Artillery Battalion (1 (NL) Corps Artillery) and its main equipment, the M107 self-propelled gun.
19 Afdva: De mammoet is los (archived)
Website about the dual-capable 19 Field Artillery Battalion. Contains an extensive photo archive (registration required).
898 VbdBat / Radcie
Website about 898 Signal Battalion, the Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) unit of the Royal Netherlands Army (Royal Army Signals Command). Includes general information on SIGINT operations during the Cold War as well as some order of battle data on Warsaw Pact forces.
Geschiedenis Bevoorrading en Transport
Website by the Bureau Geschiedschrijving Bevoorradings- en Transporttroepen on the history of supply and transport in the Royal Army between 1950 and 2000.
306 Squadron: Videre Vincere Est
Website about the tactical reconnaissance squadron of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Includes transcripts of the (unofficial) squadron diaries. 
Websites: Equipment
Website with extensive information on the ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy, past and present.
DAF YP-408: Forgotten Hero?
Website on the DAF YP-408 armoured personnel carrier and its role in the armoured infantry battalions between 1964 and 1987. Contains extensive information and large photo archives.
DAF Militaire Voertuigen
Website on the military vehicles produced by DAF from 1935 to the present.
NF5.nl (archived)
Website on the NF-5, the Netherlands (Canadair-built) version of the Northrop F-5 fighter aircraft.
Website with photographs on Netherlands defence. Contains an ongoing survey of all mobilisation complexes, stores complexes and ammunition stores complexes from the Cold War era, as well as a map with their locations.   


Mariniers vandaag (1981)
Short documentary film on the Marine Corps by Pim Korver.
De ogen van de vloot (1989)
Short documentary film on the Naval Aviation Service that manages to be both interesting and silly.
Donderslag 19 (1989)
Army information film on the 1989 mobilisation exercise Donderslag 19.
Eenheid door verbondenheid (1983)
Army information film on the 1 (NL) Corps FTX Atlantic Lion in 1983. Atlantic Lion formed a major part of NATO's  Autumn Forge 83 series of exercises, which further included Reforger 83 and the now infamous Able Archer 83 nuclear release exercise.
DPL in BRD (1988)
Army information film on conscript service with 41 Armoured Brigade in West Germany.
Van Mutsdas tot Groene Baret (1991)
Army information film on the selection and training of conscript personnel for 104 Observation and Reconnaissance Company.


• Archief Militaire Spectator
All issues of the Militaire Spectator strategic studies journal from 1832 to 2013.
• Staten-Generaal Digitaal
Parliamentary documents from 1814 to 1995, including the proceedings of the Second and First Chamber of the


• Tanknet, King Sargent Military History Forum
• Axis History Forum, Other Eras
You may find the Wehrmacht regalia distasteful.


1. The external links on this page are provided as a service only: I do not have any control over or responsibility for (the accuracy of) information or any other type of content you may find at those locations. External links to online publications and websites used as sources for this study can be found on the Sources page. Some of the online publications listed above are hosted on this website or on this website's YouTube channel, either by permission of the author or because the original URLs are no longer working and the files in question would otherwise become unavailable. If you are the author or own the rights of any such file and object to their publication through this website, please contact me to have it removed.